2 Positive Reinforcement and Extinction Flashcards Preview

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What is the Law of Effect?

Thorndike: Response is controlled by its consequences. A response that leads to a good outcome increases the chances of that response. A response that leads to a bad outcome will decrease the change of that response.


What is secondary reinforcement?

When reinforcement is transferred to related/previously neutral stimuli, i.e. other stimuli present during reinforcement (e.g. context). Most rewarding stimuli in our lives are secondary reinforcers (e.g. money)


What is the difference between Classical Conditioning and Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning?

CC: stimulus learning (S-S* learning)Thondike/Pavlov - response is elicited, non-voluntary, controlled by antecedents.IC: response learning (S*-R learning)Skinner - response is emitted, voluntary, controlled by consequences.


What are the two main factors that affect instrumental conditioning?

Temporal Contiguity: smaller interval produces stronger learningContingency: The same reinforcer should be given when and only when desired response produced. (do not deliver Rft spuriously)


What is an exception to the contiguity rule of instrumental conditioning?

Taste aversion


What is shaping?

The reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired response, by changing the schedule of reinforcement.Examples: strength of lever press, place training.


What is the first step in response chaining?

Start with the most distal step (end) and work forwards towards the proximal response, such that everything is contingent on preceding behaviour.


What is response chaining?

The building up of simple responses to form a complex behaviour, by shaping a sequence of responses.


What is the optimal schedule of reinforcement? What's the second optimal?

1. Fixed Ratio (piecemeal schedule)2. Variable Ratio(Fixed Interval, Variable Interval)


What is the difference between ratio and interval schedules?

Ratio: depends on the number of responses (e.g. Rft delivered ___ responses)Interval: depends on the amount of time after response that reinforcement is delivered.(e.g. Rft delivered ___ seconds after response)


What is the difference between fixed and variable schedules?

Fixed: Reinforcement delivered every __response OR after __secondsVariable: Reinforcement delivered variably, or on average after __responses or on average after __seconds.


How does extinction work?

The availability of the reinforcer is removed. Response declines over time.


What is the difference between partial reinforcement and continuous reinforcement?

Continuous Reinforcement: the response is reinforced every single time it occursPartial Reinforcement: the response is reinforced only part of the time.


What kind of punishment uses extinction?

Omission (negative punishment) - reward is removed, there is no contingency between R and Rft, response decreases.


What is the partial reinforcement extinction effect?

When partial reinforcement persists after extinction longer than continuous reinforcement - the less reliably a response is reinforced, the more persistent it is during extinction