3. Immunity and Vaccines. Flashcards
What is active immunity?
The type of immunity you get when your immune system makes its own antibodies after being stimulated by an antigen.
What are the 2 types of active immunity?
Natural - when you become immune after catching disease.
Artificial - when you become immune after you’ve been given a vaccination containing harmless dose of antigen.
What is passive immunity?
Type of immunity you get from being given antibodies made by a different organism - your immune system doesn’t produce any antibodies of its own.
What are the 2 types of passive immunity?
Natural - baby become immune due to antibodies it receives from mother, through placenta and in breast milk.
Artificial - when you become immune after being injected with antibodies from someone else.
Give an example of passive artificial immunity?
If you contract tetanus you can be injected with antibodies against the tetanus toxin collected from blood donations.
Differences between acfuce and passive immunity
- Active- requires expose to antigen. Passive doesn’t
- protection takes a while to develop in active. Passive it’s immediate.
- memory cells produced in active. Passive no memory cells produced
- protection long term in active due to memory cells in active. Protection short term in passive antibodies broken down
What is vaccination
Contain antigens that cause your body to produce memory cells against particular antigen on pathogen.
But don’t get the disease - immune no symptoms.
Those that aren’t vaccinated less likely to catch the diseases as diseases isn’t common in population as many vaccinated to prevent spread
Types of vaccines
Oral - bad as can be broken down by enzymes in gut or too large to be absorbed into blood.
Booster vaccines given later on to produce more memory cells
Tested on animals before humans
Animal based substances used in vaccines