Looks like we were given the same lecture twice, most of this is a rehash but there are some male hypogonadism questions at the end, soz
What is GnRH?
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone
released by hypothalamus
stimulates release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary
What sort of GnRH pulses stimulate the release of
FSH - LOW frequency pulses
LH - HIGH frequency pulses
How long does the menstrual cycle last?
28 - 35 days
What are the two phases of the menstrual cycle?
When roughly does ovulation occur?
Around 14 days, midway between follicular and luteal phases
Surge of which hormone triggers ovulation?
What is the dominant hormone in the luteal phase?
Oestradiol peaks when?
Progresterone peaks when?
Oestradiol before ovulation
Which hormone causes thickening of the endometrium?
How does oestrogen affect gonadotrophin release in the follicular phase and luteal phase?
Pos feedback follicular
Neg feedback luteal
Which hormone is secreted by the corpus luteum and maintains early pregnancy?
A high serum progesterone level one week on Day 21 indicates what?
Woman has ovulated
Irregular cycles cause ___.
Ovulation disorders cause which symptoms?
Oligomenorrhoea (cycles longer than 35 days)
Amenorrhoea (no period)
Issues with which glands cause anovulation?
What are the levels of FSH and LH in hypothalamic pituitary failure?
because no GnRH produced
Because no FSH and LH are released in hypothalamic pituitary failure, oestrogen is __.
How can oestrogen deficiency be investigated?
Progesterone challenge test
Imitates peak in luteal phase, negative if no menstruation occurs afterwards
How is hypothalamic-pituitary related anovulation treated?
GnRH injections (pulsatile)
Gonadotrophin (LH/FSH) injections
What is the most common endocrine disease in women and causes anovulation with a positive progesterone challenge test?
Polycystic ovary syndrome
What are the three diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome?
Hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism due to increased testosterone)
How is PCOS treated before ovulation is induced?
Why do patients with PCOS take oestrogen tablets e.g Clomid?
Apart from oestrogen tablets, what other treatments exist for PCOS?
What, normally associated with diabetes, is also seen in the majority of PCOS patients?
big long list of reasons why, don't really matter
Which drug is used to address insulin resistance in PCOS?
Why does PCOS cause insulin resistance?
High levels of LH causes hyperinsulinaemia for some reason
Insulin lowers level of transporter which mops up testosterone
> Masculinisation (acne, hirsutism)
What are some risks of using drugs like Clomid and gonadotrophin injections to stimulate ovulation?
Multiple pregnancy (twins are evil)
Multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets) tend to be (premature / late) and can have lots of complications.
complications - cardio, resp, disability