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5 Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity > 31 Fungi > Flashcards

Flashcards in 31 Fungi Deck (29):
1

What fundamentally distinguishes fungi form plants?

They are heterotrophs, unlike autotrophic photosynthesising plants

2

What is the basic nutrition mode of fungi?

They are chemoheterotrophs that perform extracellular digestion

3

What are cell walls of fungi made of?

Chitin

4

What is chitin?

A nitrogen-containing polysaccharide that is found in the cell wall of fungi

5

What is the basic structure of a multicellular fungus?

The are composed of networks of tiny filaments called hyphae.

Below ground these hyphae form a network called mycelium.

Hyphae cluster tightly together to form the reproductive structures i.e. the bits we see.

6

What is the basic structure of hyphae?

Hyphae consist of tubular cell walls surrounding the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of the cells.

7

What are hyphae?

The fine filaments that form the mycelium and reproductive structures

8

What are unicellular fungi called?

Yeasts (its a general term)

9

What are the structures of fungi composed of?

A network of hyphae

10

What is mycelium?

A vast network of fine hyphae that exists underground to aid in the absorption of nutrients/

11

What is fungus equivalent of plant roots?

Mycelium

12

What is the underground network of fungal hyphae called?

Mycelium

13

Why is mycelium important?

It maximises surface area for water intake and the absorption of nutrients decomposed by extracellular digestion.

14

What are the basic forms of hyphae?

Septate hypha and coenocytic hypha

15

In the context of fungi, what are ’septa’?

Walls that form between cells in some hyphae.

They have pores that can allow ribosomes, mitochondria and even nuclei to pass through

16

What are septate hyphae?

Those in which there are clearly define ’septa’ (walls) between the individual cells

17

What are coenocytic hyphae?

Those that have a continuous cytoplasmic mass having hundreds or thousands of nuclei without septa between them.

The coenocytic condition results from the repeated division of nuclei without cytokinesis.

18

What are hyphae that associate with plants called?

Haustoria

19

What are ‘haustoria’?

Fungal hyphae that interact with plants either by extracting nutrients from plants or exchange them as part of symbiosis

20

What are symbiotic relationships between fungi and plants roots called?

Mycorrhizae

21

What are mycorrhizae?

Symbiotic relationships between fungi and plant roots

22

What are ‘mycorrhizal fungi’?

Fungi that form mycorrhizae and thus interact symbiotically with plant roots

23

What are fungi that interact symbiotically with plant roots called?

Mycorrhizal fungi

24

What are the mycorrhizal fungi that have hyphae that grow around plant roots but do not penetrate?

Ectomycorrhizal

25

What are mycorrhizal fungi with hyphae that extend into plant roots called?

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

26

What are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

Those with hyphae that extend into plant roots

27

What are ectomycorrhizal fungi?

Those with hyphae that do not extend into the plant roots and instead wrap around.

28

Are fungi reproduce sexually or asexually?

Most species can produce both ways.

Some species are exclusively asexual, others are solely sexual.

29

Are somatic fungal cells haploid or diploid?

Haploid