3.12 Legal highs Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry- Carol > 3.12 Legal highs > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.12 Legal highs Deck (19):
1

What are the effects of mephedrone?

Inhibits reuptake of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine
Stimulates dopamine release
Stimulant: talkative, self-confident
Empathogenic: intimacy, appreciates music, openness, desire to dance

2

What are the effects of cocaine?

Inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
Can trigger cardiac events.

3

What are the effects of amphetamines?

Stimulates the release of:
-Dopamine
-Norepinephrine

Can trigger psychosis.

4

What are the effects of MDMA?

Stimulates the release of:
-Serotonin
-Norepinephrine
-Dopamine

5

What are the negative effects of mephedrone?

Sympathetic SE: palpitations, tachycardia, mydriasis, chest pain, agitation, sweating, headache, insomnia
Jaw clenching, nausea/vomiting, paranoia, hallucinations
Craving, dependency

6

What does "benzo fury" do?

It is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor

7

What are the effects of empathogens?

Emotional openness
relatedness
empathy and sympathy

8

What are the specific risks of cocaine and amphetamines?

Cocaine- cardiac
Amphetamines- psychosis

9

What does 'sympathetic toxidrome' mean?

They are the acute toxic effects of amphetamine-like substances
-tremor
-tachycardia
-sweating
-n/v
-hyperpyrexia
-metabolic acidosis
-serotonin syndrome
etc.

10

What is serotonin syndrome?

agitation/restlessness
hyper-reflexia
tremor
myoclonus
sweating
diarrhoea
shivering
ataxia
fever
confusion
hypomania
confusion

Empathogens/entactogens, antidepressants, OTC cough syrup, antimigraine, antibiotics, tramadol, and herbal products all increase risk

11

What is methiopropamine? (MPA)
-pink panther
-cherly sheen
-

It is a structural analogue of methamphetamine
Effects:
NA and DA reuptake inhibitor

12

What is CHING/Mr. White?

Ethylphenidate
It is used as a cocaine substitute
Cut with lignocaine

Effects:
NA and DA reuptake inhibitor

13

What is the difference between synthetic cannabinoids and cannabis?

-up to 800x more potent
-inconsistent
-less cannibidiol
-may cause psychosis increased agitation
-more hallucinations
-2-3x more sympathomimetic effects, cardiovascular problems

14

What are depressants like Etizolam used for?

Increased sociability, enhanced mood
to decrease HR and RR
Decreased LOC may lead to coma and death however
-may be used as a 'come down' in club drug use

MoA: decreased neurotransmission levels
-inhibit glutaminergic/catecholaminergic levels

15

What is AH7921 a member of?

It is a part of the synthetic opioids class of drugs
-mu opioid receptor agonist
-?80% potency of morphine
Class A drug now

16

What is acetylfentanyl famous for?

having 5-15x the potency of heroin
has caused deaths esp in Estonia

17

What are the effects of hallucinogens?

Change perceptions
illusions, hallucinations and pseudohallucinations

Less likely to be used frequently
does not lead to dependence
tachyphylaxis- acutely decreased effect to drug
some sympathemimetic

18

What are the effects of ketamine?

Detachment from reality
derealisation
depersonalisation
dissociation
hallucination
sedative

However: laryngeal and pharyngeal reflexes maintained

Highest risk due to accidental due to intoxication
SE: Ketamine bladder

19

What is ketamine bladder?

Scarring of the lining of the bladder, may contract and cause increased frequency, haematuria
may eventually result in kidney failure