3.2.1.3 - Specialised Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2.1.3 - Specialised Cells Deck (43):
1

What are the 7 life processes?

Movement
Respiration
Sensitivity
Growth
Reproduction
Excretion
Nutrition

2

What do we call the cell formed at fertilisation?

A zygote

3

A zygote is what type of cell?

A stem cell (totipotent)

4

A zygote develops into an...

embryo

5

An embryo is made up of which type of cells?

(embryonic) stem cells

6

What is a stem cell?

A non-specialised cell

7

Are the cells of an embryo genetically identical?

yes

8

A zygote and the cells of an embryo divide by the process of...

mitosis

9

Are the specialised cells of a multicellular organism genetically identical?

yes

10

How is it that different types of specialised cells can be genetically identical?

Different genes are active within the nucleus of those cells.

11

Which organelle will be well developed within a sperm cell?

Mitochondria (to provide energy for movement)

12

Which organelle will be well developed in muscle cells?

Mitochondria (to provide energy for movement)

13

What is another name for a liver cell?

Hepatocyte

14

Which organelle will be well developed in a hepatocyte (liver cell)

Golgi apparatus (to detoxify)

15

Some embryonic stem cells develop further into __________ stem cells, which lie dormant for future use.

adult

16

What are haematopoietic cells and where are they found?

- Adult stem cells that develop into red blood cells.
- bone marrow

17

Cells that are adapted to perform a specific function are called...

specialised cells

18

What is a tissue?

A group of identical or similar cells that are specialised to carry out a specific function.

19

Approximately how many different types of human cell are there?

200

20

Muscle cells group together to form...

Muscle tissue

21

What is the function of muscle tissue?

Contraction to allow movement.

22

What is the function of epithelial tissue?

- Line the surface of organs
- Protect
- Have sensory functions
- Absorption
- Transporting substances (if they are ciliated)

23

What are cilia?

Small hair-like structures present on some epithelial cells that can transport substances e.g. mucus in the lungs.

24

What is the function of connective tissue?

- Support - holds other tissues together.
- Provides strength and elasticity to tissues.

25

Connective tissues produce...

collagen fibres

26

What is an organ?

A combination of tissues that are coordinated to perform a variety of functions although they have 1 predominant function.

27

The stomach consists of which tissues?

- Epithelial tissue
- Connective tissue
- Muscle tissue

28

Why is it that arteries and veins are organs but capillaries are not?

- Arteries and veins consist of a combination of muscle and endothelial tissues.
- Capillaries only contain endothelial tissues.

29

What is an organ system?

A group of organs that aggregate to perform a specific task.

30

What is the function of the digestive system?`

To digest, process and absorb food.

31

What is the function of the respiratory system?

Breathing and gas exchange.

32

What is the function of the circulatory system?

To pump and circulate blood.

33

Name 3 organ systems

1. Digestive system
2. Circulatory system
3. Respiratory system

34

Name 3 human tissues

1. Muscle tissue
2. Epithelial tissue
3. Connective tissue

35

Name 5 plant tissues

1. Epidermal tissue
2. Palisade mesophyll tissue
3. Spongy mesophyll tissue
4. Xylem tissue
5. Phloem tissue

36

What is the function of xylem tissue?

- Transport water from roots to leaves
- Transport mineral salts
- Provide mechanical support to plant.

37

What is the function of palisade mesophyll tissue?

- To carry out photosynthesis.

38

How are xylem tissues adapted to transport water?

They are formed from hollow cells that allow water to travel through.

39

How are palisade mesophyll tissues adapted to carry out photosynthesis?

They contain many chloroplasts.

40

What is the function of spongy mesophyll cells?

Provide a large surface area for gas exchange via diffusion.

41

What else can we call the epidermal cells that line top and bottom surfaces of a leaf?

Upper epidermis
Lower epidermis

42

Which epidermis of a leaf are stomata found?

Lower epidermis (lower surface)

43

What are guard cells and where are they found?

- 2 kidney shaped cells that form the stomata.
- They are part of the lower epidermal tissue.
They look like this ---> (())