3.3 Organic Chemistry: .4 Alkenes Flashcards Preview

Chemistry AS > 3.3 Organic Chemistry: .4 Alkenes > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.3 Organic Chemistry: .4 Alkenes Deck (30):
1

what is the general formula of alkenes?

CnH2n

2

what are alkenes?

alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons

they contain a carbon to carbon double bond

 

3

give the name for each of these alkenes:

C2H4

C3H6

C4H8

C5H10

C6H12

C7H14

C8H16

C9H18

C10H20

C2H4= methene

C3H6= propene

C4H8= butene

C5H10= pentene

C6H12= hexene

C7H14= heptene

C8H16= octene

C9H18= nonene

C10H20= decene

4

what is the difference between  but-2-ene and but-1-ene?

draw a diagram to show this

The position of the double bond (the functional group) is between the 2nd and 3rd carbons in the carbon chain

whlist the position of the double bond is between the 1st and 2nd carbons in the carbon chain

 

A image thumb
5

why cant nucleophiles be attracted to alkenes?

they dont have a polar bond

6

why are electrophiles attracted to alkenes?

because alkenes have a double bond which have high electron density

7

what is an electrophile?

an electron pair acceptor

8

describe what happens in electrophilic addition and why this process is called an addition mechanism?

1.) the electrophile is attracted to the double

2.) the electrons in the double bond make a coordinate bond with the electrophile and an intermediate is formed called a carbocation

3.) the nucleophile at the end will make a coordinate bond carbocation

-it's addition because chemicals are added across the double bond

9

why hydrogen halides can be reacted with alkenes to form a halogenoalkane?

HCl, HBr and HI

10

draw out the electrophilic addition mechanism for the reaction between ethene and hydrogen bromide 

A image thumb
11

draw the electrophilic addition mechanism for the reaction between ethene and concentrated sulphuric acid

state what product is made

what can you add to this product to produce an alcohol (what alcohol is made? )

-ethyl hydrogensulfate is made

-you can add water to the ethyl hydrogensulfate to produce ethanol as well as reforming the sulphuric acid

 

*first arrow should go directly to hydrogen and 3rd directly to carbon)

A image thumb
12

what is the test for an unsaturated hydrocarbon (alkene)?

explain why this happens

-orange bromine water

-you shake the alkene with orange bromine water, and the soltuion quickly decolourises (goes from orange to colourless)

-bromine is added across the carbon-carbon double bond to form a colourless dibromoalkane which happens by electrophilic addition.

13

draw out the electrophilic addition mechanism of the reaction between bromine and ethene

state the product that is made and the eqaution for the reaction

-the product made is 1,2-dibromoethane

(equation in image)

A image thumb
14

what will happen if a hydrogen halide is added to an unsymmetrical alkene?

there will be two possible products

15

what decides the amount of each product made from the reaction between a hydrogen halide and unsymmetrical alkene?

how stable the carbocation formed in the middle of the reaction is- which is known as the carbocation intermediate

16

what is carbocatio?

a carbocation is a carbon with a positive charge

17

what are the three types of carbocations?

primary

seconday

tertiary

18

what is the difference between the primary,secondary,tertiary carbocations?

-primary carbocations have 1 alkyl group attached to the C+ ion

-secondary carbocations have 2 alkyl groups attached to the C+ ion

-tertiary carbocations have 3 alkyl groups attached to the C+ ion

19

what is an alkyl group? give an example

alkyl groups are alkanes with a hydrogen removed

e.g methyl: CH3-

20

in the reaction between hydrogen bromide and propene:

-draw the 2 routes that the reaction could go through and write an eqaution for each

-state which is the major product and why

-state which is the minor product

2-bromopropane is the major product because this mechanism goes through the more stable secondary carbocation compared to the less stable primary carbocation making 1-bromopropane the minor product.

A image thumb
21

what is addition polymerisation?

the making of a long polymer from many alkene monomers

22

what happens in addition polymerisation?

-In addition polymerisation the monomers contain a double covalent bond

-the double bond breaks and the monomers add to each other to make a long chained molecule with single carbon-carbon covalent bond running through it

23

here is an alkene

show what this molecule would look like after being in a addition polymerisation reaction

Q image thumb

A image thumb
24

what is another name for poly(phenylethene)?

polystyrene

25

why are polyalkene chains unreactive?

why is this causing problems?

-polyalkene chains are saturated molecules (they only contain single bonds in the carbon chain)

-the main carbon chain of a polyakene is non-polar

this means that the polyalkene chains cant not be attacked by biological agents e.g enzyme and so are not biodegradable, causing waste disposal to become more and more difficult

26

what are thermosoftening plastics?

-addition polymers consists of long polymer chains and the seperate chains are held together with weak Van der Waal forces

-These forces are easy to break so many addition polymers will melt in heating because the chains can slide over each other

27

how do plasticisers work?

-adding a plasticiser to a polymers makes it more flexible

-the plasticiser molecule gets between the polymer chains and push them appart

-this reduces the strenght of the intermolecular forces so they can slide around more, making the polymers easier to bend

28

what is the difference between rigid pvc and plasticised pvc (in terms of flexibility and uses

-rigid PVC is hard and brittle at room temperature so is used to make drainpipes adn window frames

-plasticised PVC is much more flexible than rigid PVC and is used to make electrical cable insulation, flooring tiles and clothing

29

what is the difference in properties between straight chain and branched chain polymers?

1.)straight chain have a higher melting point than branched chained polymers:

-this is because in the straight chained polymer the chains lie closer together so the Van der Waal forces are stronger meaning more energy is required to overcome these forces.

-where as in branched chain polymers the chains lie further apart so the Van der Waal forces are weaker so less energy is required to overcome the forces

2.)Straight chained polymer has a higher density than branched chain polymers:

-this is because in the straight chained polymers there are more chains in a fixed volume

-where as with the branched chain polymer the chains are further apart and spread over a fixed volume

30

what are the solution to pollution by plastics?

-Mechanical recycling: this is seperating different plastics, washng them and sorting, melting and remoulding into new things

-Feedstock recycling: plastics are heated to a temperature that will break the polymer bonds and produce monomers. These can then be used to make new plastics. prob with this is that it cant be done a lot bc the heating can degrade the plastic's properties