33. Sex Differences Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 33. Sex Differences Deck (15)
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1
Q

Fat distribution in males vs. females.

A
Males:
-concentrated in the gut and back
-skinny limbs
Females:
-concentrated in hips & thighs
-fat more evenly distributed throughout body
2
Q

What is the minimal essential body fat for females?

A

12%

3
Q

What is the minimal essential body fat for males?

A

5-6%

4
Q

Define Q angle.

A

Difference between the vertical of the tibia and the lateral of the femur

5
Q

Do men or women have a larger Q angle? Significance for injury?

A
  • Women

- More prone to ACL frequencies

6
Q

What is the normal ranges of % body fat for each sex?

A
  • Males = 5-25%

- Females = 12-36%

7
Q

Why is there less difference between male and female world class swimming performances than between male and female running performances?

A
  • Running = 10% difference in performance has to do w/ body fat
  • Swimming = women have more fat –> more buoyancy
  • Women maintain better trim (posture in water - rear segment is directly behind forward limbs) so women’s energy balance going forward is better
8
Q

Are there sex differences in muscle fiber type distribution and/or specific strength?

A

NO

9
Q

When during life do sex differences in muscle mass distribution develop?

A

Puberty

10
Q

Relative hypertrophy seen in men vs. women in response to equivalent weight training

A
  • Testosterone level is stable –> hypertrophy is same in men and women
  • Females grow muscle just fine in proportion to their initial size
11
Q

Describe the differences in endurance performances between genders, like cycling and running.

A
  • Males’ best times usually range between 5-15% faster than females b/c:
  • Males have greater amount of lean body mass per unit of total body weight
  • Increased hemoglobin concentrations elevate arterial blood oxygen carrying capacity
12
Q

The faster male “best time” performances (10%) in endurance running are due primarily to what 2 factors?

A
  • 5% is change in % of fat minimum in males

- 5% is lower [Hb] in males (Hct ~39-40 vs Hct ~44-45)

13
Q

Name 3-4 mechanisms allowing female distance runners to out-perform 99% of young adult males?

A
  • A lower body fat (11-13%) than all but the leanest 20% of males
  • Compensating for the lower hemoglobin level w/ an overall blood volume expansion…
  • Increased capacity to pump larger blood volume (SVmax and Qmax)
  • A greater ability to extract oxygen at the muscle level, based on greater capillary density, higher proportion of slow-twitch fiber, mitochondrial and oxidative enzyme content.
14
Q

What sex differences exist that affect physiologic function?

A
  • Q angle
  • Skeletal mass during adolescent growth spurt
  • Essential fat
  • Fat distribution
  • Lean body mass
15
Q

Which types of athletic events would show greatest differences among genders? Least difference?

A
  • Greatest differences = high jump, long jump, bench press

- Lowest differences = open water swimming