343 - 344 - GI anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 343 - 344 - GI anatomy Deck (26):
1

Where does an indirect hernia emerge from the abdomen?

internal inguinal ring

2

Through which abdominal wall layers does the spermatic cord travel?

1. parietal peritoneum
2. extraperitoneal tissue
3. transversalis fascia
4. transversus abdominis muscle
5. internal oblique muscle
5. aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
6. inguinal ligament

3

Which structures form the borders of the inguinal triangle? What is another name for this triangle?

medial - rectus abdominus (lateral border)
superolateral - inferior epigastric vessels
inferior - inguinal ligament
Hasselbach triangle

4

Where does a direct hernia emerge from the abdomen?

protrudes through the abdominal wall in the inguinal triangle

5

What are the layers of the spermatic cord?

1. internal spermatic fascia (transversalis fascia)
2. cremasteric muscle and fascia (internal oblique)
3. external spermatic fascia (external oblique)

6

What fibrous structure runs midline from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphisis?

linea alba

7

Which structure is more medial at the level of the spermatic cord: medial umbilical ligament or median umbilical ligament?

median umbilical ligament

8

What are 4 main types of hernia in the GI system?

1. diaphragmatic
2. indirect inguinal
3. direct inguinal
4. femoral

9

What is the definition of a hernia?

a protrusion of peritoneum through an opening, usually a site of weakness

10

What is a diaphragmatic hernia?

abdominal structures enter thorax

11

Who gets diaphragmatic hernias and why?

infants as a result of defective development of pleuroperitoneal membrane

12

What is the most common type of diaphragmatic hernia? What happens?

hiatal hernia - stomach herniates upward through esophageal hiatus of the the diaphragm

13

What is the most common type of hiatal hernia? What happens?

sliding hiatal hernia: GE junction is displaced ↑ through diaphragm → "hourglass stomach"

14

What is the less common type of hiatal hernia? What happens?

paraesophageal hernia: fundus protrudes into the thorax; GE junction is normal

15

What is a physical exam finding in a paraesophageal hernia? (pathoma)

bowel sounds in lower lung field (it also causes lung hypoplasia)

16

Describe an indirect inguinal hernia

Goes through the internal (deep) inguinal ring, external (superficial) inguinal ring, and into the scrotum

17

Does an indirect inguinal hernia enter the internal inguinal ring medially or laterally to the inferior epigastric artery?

laterally

(MD's don't LIe: Medial = Direct; Lateral = Indirect)

18

Who gets indirect inguinal hernias?

1. infants: due to failure of processus vaginalis to close (can form hydrocele)
2. more common in males

19

What layers of the spermatic fascia cover an indirect hernia vs. a direct hernia?

indirect: all 3 (external, cremasteric, internal spermatic fascia)
direct: external spermatic fascia only

20

Describe what happens in a direct inguinal hernia

gut bulges directly through abdominal wall through the inguinal triangle

21

Does a direct inguinal hernia enter the internal inguinal ring medially or laterally to the inferior epigastric artery?

medially

(MD's don't LIe: Medial = Direct; Lateral = Indirect)

22

Which inguinal ring(s) does an external inguinal hernia pass through?

external ring only

23

Who gets direct inguinal hernias?

older men usually

24

Describe what happens in a femoral hernia

protrudes below the inguinal ligament through the femoral canal below and lateral to the pubic tubercle

25

Who gets femoral hernias?

more common in females

26

What kind of hernia is the leading cause of bowel incarceration?

femoral hernia