490 - Glaucoma drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 490 - Glaucoma drugs Deck (17)
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1

How does epinephrine help in the treatment of glaucoma?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis via vasoconstriction (α-agonism)

2

What is brimonidine and what is its mechanism in the treatment of glaucoma?

an α2 agonist; ↓ aqueous humor synthesis

3

Does epinephrine cause mydriasis or miosis as a side effect?

mydriasis

4

Is epinephrine used for open or closed-angle glaucoma?

open: due to mydriatic effect it is contraindicated for closed angle glaucoma

5

Blurry vision, ocular hyperemia, foreign body sensation, ocular allergic reactions, and ocular pruritus are side effects of which glaucoma drug?

Brimonidine

6

How do β-blockers help in the treatment of glaucoma?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis

7

What are 3 examples of β-blockers used in the treatment of glaucoma?

timolol, betaxolol, carteolol

8

What is the mechanism of action of acetazolamide in its use as a glaucoma treatment?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis

9

What are eye-related side effects in the use of β-blockers for the treatment of glaucoma?

No pupillary or vision changes

10

What are eye-related side effects in the use of acetazolamide for the treatment of glaucoma?

No pupillary or vision changes

11

Give 2 examples of direct cholinomimetics used in the treatment of glaucoma:

pilocarpine, carbachol

12

Give 2 examples of indirect cholinomimetics used in the treatment of glaucoma:

physostigmine, echothiophate

13

How do cholinomimetics help in glaucoma?

↑ outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork

14

What is one glaucoma drug that can be used in an emergency? why?

pilocarpine: it is very effective at opening meshwork into the canal of Schlemm

15

What are the eye-related side effects of cholinomimetics?

Miosis and cyclospasm (contraction of ciliary muscle)

16

Which prostaglandin can be used in the treatment of glaucoma? Why?

Latanoprost (PGF2α); it increases outflow of aqueous humor

17

What is one eye-related side effect of latanoprost?

darkens color of iris (browning)