Flashcards in 3.5 Making Use of Enzymes Deck (26)
Name an disadvantage of using microorganisms enzymes
Very expensive to produce
What enzymes do biological detergents use to digest food stains?
Protease and lipase
Why are biological detergents good the environment?
They are used at a lower temp than it already washing powder which saves energy and money on electricity
What enzymes are used to predigest some baby foods?
Protease for proteins
Which enzyme is used to convert glucose into fructose syrup?
What are the benefits of using fructose instead of glucose?
Fructose is much sweeter so less is needed in foods therefore the foods are not as fattening
What enzymes are used to convert starch into sugar syrups for use in foods?
How are enzymes used in industry?
They bring about reactions at a normal temp or pressure
What is the benefit of using enzymes in industry?
They don't require expensive equipment and a lot of energy to produce high temps and pressures
Why are enzymes in biological washing powders cased in little tiny capsules?
Many factory staff developed allergies triggered by proteins in the enzyme dust in the air
Despite the bad publicity, what did the enzyme allergy case prove?
That biological detergents don't seem to be a major cause of skin problems
Why do some people worry about the waste water of the washing machines (carrying enzymes) going into the sea?
The enzymes will start to catalyse reactions in the sea water that we don't want to happen
Why might biological detergents not be good at killing pathogens on clothes?
They have to be used at low temps so the pathogens might not be killed in the wash
Name a use of enzymes in diagnosis.
Checking for liver faults or damages
How do doctors use enzymes to diagnose liver damages?
Liver enzymes may leak into your bloodstream so the doctors test blood for liver enzymes
How are enzymes used to test people for diabetes?
Use a chemical indicator to check for enzymes in urine (there would be a colour change in the presence of glucose)
Why do diabetics have glucose in their urine?
They have too much glucose in their blood so need to release some
How can enzymes be used to help a damaged pancreas?
If the pancreas is damaged it cannot make enzymes so you take extra enzymes, particular lipase, to digest food. Enzymes are in capsules so they don't dissolve in the stomach
How can enzymes help you if you have a heart attack?
An enzyme called streptokinase is injected into your blood to dissolve clots in arteries of the heart wall and reduce damage to the heart
How can enzymes kill blood cancer cells?
The blood cancer cells need only one type of amino acid from your body fluids to survive. The enzymes speed up the breakdown of that one amino acid so therefore the cancer cell cannot get any of that amino acid and it will die. But normal cells make the amino acids as well so they aren't affected
Name another test to see if the liver is working properly.
The hydrogen peroxide test
What is the hydrogen peroxide test?
Placing Apple liver potato and Tuna into 15ml of hydrogen peroxide we can see that the enzymes in the liver have more suitable enzymes for digesting the hydrogen peroxide than the potato because the liver is frothing more so it is working faster
Why do protease need a lower pH in the stomach?
The bacteria killed by the low pH in the stomach makes the protease a better
What is the stomach mucus lining for?
To stop the stomach dissolving
What does bile do to fats?
Emulsified them so they don't go into the bloodstream