3.2 Chemical Events at the Synapse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2 Chemical Events at the Synapse Deck (34)
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1
Q

Amino acids

A

Acids containing an amine group (NH2)

2
Q

Monoamines

A

Chemicals formed by a change in certain amino acids

3
Q

Acetylcholine

A

(A one-member “family”)

A chemical similar to an amino acid, except that it includes an N(CH3)3 group instead of an NH2

4
Q

Neuropeptides

A

Chains of amino acids

5
Q

Purines

A

A category of chemicals including adenosine and several of its derivatives

6
Q

Gases

A

Nitric oxide and possibly others

7
Q

Nitric oxide

A

Chemical formula NO, a gas released by many small local neurons.

NB! Do not confuse nitric oxide, NO, with nitrous oxide, N2O, aka “laughing gas”

8
Q

MAO (monoamine oxidase)

A

Enzyme that converts catecholamines and serotonin into synaptically inactive forms

Eg. Several antidepressant drugs inhibit MAO

9
Q

Exocytosis

A

A release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft that seperates one neuron from another

10
Q

Ionotropic effects

A

Synaptic effects that depend on the rapid opening of some kind of gate in the membrane

11
Q

Transmitter-gated or ligand-gated channels

A

Ion channel that opens temporarily when a neurotransmitter binds to it

12
Q

Metabotropic effect

A

A sequence of metabolic reactions that produce slow and long-lasting effects at a synapse

13
Q

G-protein

A

A protein coupled to guanosine triphosphate (GTP), an energy-storing molecule

14
Q

Second messenger

A

A chemical that, when activated by a neurotransmitter, initates communication to many areas within the neuron

15
Q

Neuropeptide Y (NPY)

A

Peptide that blocks the satiety actions of the paraventricular nucleus

16
Q

Neuromodulators

A

Researchers often refer to neuropeptides as neuromodulators, because they can influence the function of neurons but do not act as neurotransmitters

17
Q

Neurogliaform cell

A

A kind of neuron that releases huge amounts of GABA all at once, producing widespread inhibition

18
Q

Hormone

A

Chemical that is secreted by cells in one part of the body and conveyed by the blood to influence other cells

19
Q

Neurotransmitters

A

Chemicals released by neurons that affect other neurons

20
Q

Endocrine glands

A

Hormone-producing glands

21
Q

Protein hormones

A

Hormones composed of long chains of amino acids

22
Q

Peptide hormones

A

Hormones composed of short chains of amino acids

23
Q

Pituitary gland

A

An endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothslamus

24
Q

Anterior pituitary

A

Portion of the pituitary gland, composed of glandular tissue

25
Q

Posterior pituitary

A

Portion of the pituitary gland, which releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus

26
Q

Oxytocin

A

Hormone released by posterior pituitary; important for sexual and parental behaviours

27
Q

Vasopressin

A

Antidiuretic hormone. Hormone released by posterior pituitary; raises blood pressure and enables kidneys to conserve water

28
Q

Releasing hormone

A

Hormone released by the hypothalamus that flows through the blood to the anterior pituitary

29
Q

Acetylcholinesterase (a-SEE-til-ko-lih-NES-teh-raze)

A

An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into two fragments: acetate and choline

30
Q

Reuptake

A

Reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal

31
Q

Transporters

A

Special membrane protein where reuptake occurs in the neurotransmitter

32
Q

COMT (catechol-o-methyltransferase)

A

Enzyme that breaks down exess dopamine into inactive chemicals that cannot stimulate the dopamine receptores

33
Q

Autoreseptors

A

Receptors that respond to the released transmitter by inhibiting futher synthesis and relase. That is, they provide negative feedback

34
Q

Gap junction

A

A direct contact of one neuron with another, enabling electrical transmission