Flashcards in 3.7-Diabetics Deck (32):
Concerning insulin release...Does it oscillate or is it consistently released?
It oscillates: big surge, then after 10min it decreases. Then bumps up again..
Does the presence of insulin stimulate or inhibit protein synthesis?
Stimulates! A common theme, Insulin=building stuff!
What effect does insulin have on acetyl-CoA carboxylase?
Increases its activity: (also called B7 Biotin. Committed stop to FA syn
About how many times increase for the uptake of glucose in the presence of insulin?
Type I: Age of Onset
Usually in childhood RAPID development
Type I: Nutritional Status
Type I: Genetic Disposition
Which Type?:Beta Cells are destroyed, eliminating the product insulin
Type I: Frequency of Ketosis
Type I: Plasma Insulin
Low to Absent
Type I: Acute Complications
Type I: Treatment
Insulin Always Necessary
Type II:Age of Onset
after age 35
Type II: Nutritional Status
Obesity usually present
Type I: Prevalence
~10% of Diabetes diagnosis
Type II: Prevalence
~90% of diagnosis
Type II: Genetic predisposition
Very Strong, huge factor, Pima Indian example
Which Type? Insulin resistance combined with inability of Beta cells to produce appropriate quantities of insulin...
Type II: Frequency of Ketosis
Type II: Plasma Insulin
High early, then Beta cells get poisoned and make less
Type II: Acute Complications
Type II: Treatment
Diet, exercise, oral hypoglycemic drugs, +/- insulin
What is the primary cause of Type I?
Autoimmune destruction of Beta cells
What is the direct result of Lipoprotein Lipase activity being diminished?
Build up of chylomicrons
How does hyperglycemia relate to body pH?
Water gets pulled into blood, making a higher proton concentration in the cells
What is the lipase IN the adipose cell? What is the lipase on the endothelial cell?
Adipose: Hormone-Sensative Lipase, Endothelial: LipoProtien Lipase
Why does type II NOT get Ketosis?
Since there is still SOME insulin, the HORMONE-SENSATIVE lipase is inhibited and there is less FA to the liver, ergo less ketones out of the liver
What does hemoglobin A become after sugar has bound to it? (Dr.'s read this..) Is it a covalent or non-covalent bond?
Hemoglobin A1C, it is a non-covalent bond of heme to sugar (the more [A1C] the more insulin needed)
REVIEW! What enzyme will convert glucose to sorbitol? What enzyme do you need to prevent a build up of sorbitol that is not present in the lens, nerve tissue and kidney...
ALdose Reductase (ALcohol maker).....Sorbitol Deydrogenase (weird, we use a dehydrogenase to change an OH again!)
Which type of diabetic sees the Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)?
Type II...Much like the reasons for KetoAcidosis, except no acidosis because of some insulin present...
What does AGE stand for? How is it related to Hyperglycemia?
Advanced Glycosylation End-product. Sugar binding to proteins, changing their function and stuff.