3.7-Diabetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.7-Diabetics Deck (32):
1

Concerning insulin release...Does it oscillate or is it consistently released?

It oscillates: big surge, then after 10min it decreases. Then bumps up again..

2

Does the presence of insulin stimulate or inhibit protein synthesis?

Stimulates! A common theme, Insulin=building stuff!

3

What effect does insulin have on acetyl-CoA carboxylase?

Increases its activity: (also called B7 Biotin. Committed stop to FA syn

4

About how many times increase for the uptake of glucose in the presence of insulin?

15x (GLUT4s!)

5

Type I: Age of Onset

Usually in childhood RAPID development

6

Type I: Nutritional Status

Undernourished

7

Type I: Genetic Disposition

Moderate

8

Which Type?:Beta Cells are destroyed, eliminating the product insulin

Type I

9

Type I: Frequency of Ketosis

Common

10

Type I: Plasma Insulin

Low to Absent

11

Type I: Acute Complications

KetoAcidosis

12

Type I: Treatment

Insulin Always Necessary

13

Type II:Age of Onset

after age 35

14

Type II: Nutritional Status

Obesity usually present

15

Type I: Prevalence

~10% of Diabetes diagnosis

16

Type II: Prevalence

~90% of diagnosis

17

Type II: Genetic predisposition

Very Strong, huge factor, Pima Indian example

18

Which Type? Insulin resistance combined with inability of Beta cells to produce appropriate quantities of insulin...

Type II

19

Type II: Frequency of Ketosis

Rare

20

Type II: Plasma Insulin

High early, then Beta cells get poisoned and make less

21

Type II: Acute Complications

Hyperosmolar coma

22

Type II: Treatment

Diet, exercise, oral hypoglycemic drugs, +/- insulin

23

What is the primary cause of Type I?

Autoimmune destruction of Beta cells

24

What is the direct result of Lipoprotein Lipase activity being diminished?

Build up of chylomicrons

25

How does hyperglycemia relate to body pH?

Water gets pulled into blood, making a higher proton concentration in the cells

26

What is the lipase IN the adipose cell? What is the lipase on the endothelial cell?

Adipose: Hormone-Sensative Lipase, Endothelial: LipoProtien Lipase

27

Why does type II NOT get Ketosis?

Since there is still SOME insulin, the HORMONE-SENSATIVE lipase is inhibited and there is less FA to the liver, ergo less ketones out of the liver

28

What does hemoglobin A become after sugar has bound to it? (Dr.'s read this..) Is it a covalent or non-covalent bond?

Hemoglobin A1C, it is a non-covalent bond of heme to sugar (the more [A1C] the more insulin needed)

29

REVIEW! What enzyme will convert glucose to sorbitol? What enzyme do you need to prevent a build up of sorbitol that is not present in the lens, nerve tissue and kidney...

ALdose Reductase (ALcohol maker).....Sorbitol Deydrogenase (weird, we use a dehydrogenase to change an OH again!)

30

Which type of diabetic sees the Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)?

Type II...Much like the reasons for KetoAcidosis, except no acidosis because of some insulin present...

31

What does AGE stand for? How is it related to Hyperglycemia?

Advanced Glycosylation End-product. Sugar binding to proteins, changing their function and stuff.

32

Which type of diabetes is the "Metabolic Syndrome" an indicator of?

Type II