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Flashcards in 1.1-BasicPrinciples Deck (37):
1

What does a series of linked, enzyme-catalyzed reactions constitute?

a metabolic PATHWAY

2

What is another word for a metabolic intermediate?

A metabolite

3

What should we always assume is present during a pathway?

An enzyme!

4

What are the two main components of metabolism? What is the definition of each?

Catabolism: GENERATE energy to drive vital reactions, and Anabolism: the SYNTHESIS of biological molecules

5

What are the three main properties of catabolic pathways?

1. EXERGONIC 2. OXIDATIVE(electrons are transferred to NAD+ and NADP+) 3. Energy temporarily captured as ATP

6

Is the catabolic pathway LEO or GER? OIL or RIG?

LEO/OIL so catabolic pathway is loss of electrons which means they are reducing agents

7

What are the three main stages of catabolism?

1. Hydrolysis of complex molecules to monomers 2. Convert them to Acetyl-CoA in mitochondria 3. Oxidize the Acetyl CoA to CO2 and H2O

8

What are the three properties of anabolic pathways?

1. Endergonic 2. Reductive (hydride ions from NADPH used) 3. ATP is consumed during biosynthesis

9

Besides calories, what does food provide so cells can make their own molecules? (Interesting, I've never thought of this before) :)

Carbon Skeletons

10

What are the two molecules made for long term energy storage?

Glycogen and Triacylglycerol

11

What are our two sexy strippers?

NAD+ and FAD they are our electron strippers (oxidizing agent)

12

What is NAD+ picking up? What does it become?

2 electrons and a PROTON (not a hydrogen atom) (or a H atom AND an electron)....This will make it become NADH

13

What does a high amount of NAD+ in the cell mean?

That the cell is hungry, low in energy

14

What is FAD picking up? What does it become?

2 Hydrogen Atoms (so 2 electrons).....It becomes FADH2

15

Which taxi cab do we use in catabolism?

NAD+

16

Which taxi cab do we use in Anabolism?

NADP+

17

What type of reaction is it going to be when you see a "dehydrogenase" involved?

Must be a Redox reaction!

18

Which reaction type produces low molecular weight and energy poor products?

Catabolism

19

Which reaction type produces diverse, large molecular weight, and energy rich products?

Anabolism

20

What happens when metabolic pathways go unregulated and catabolism and anabolism occur at the same rate?

FUTILE cycling

21

What are the three ways we can separate catabolic and anabolic pathways to prevent futile cycling?

1. Use different enzymes 2. Different compartments 3. Keep enzymes organized together "pass the baton"

22

What is the term for the amount of energy capable of doing work (at a const. T and P)?

Gibbs Free Energy

23

What 3 main things do we use Gibbs free energy for?

Building molecules, maintaining [ ] gradients, and contracting muscles

24

How do I find DELTA G? (The change in G)

Products- Reactants

25

What is the DELTA G eq?

DeltaG= DeltaH - TDeltaS Get Higher Test Scores

26

Which reaction type is exergonic and therefore spontaneous in the forward direction?

Catabolism

27

Which reaction type is endergonic and therefore spontaneous in the reverse direction?

Anabolism

28

What are the conditions for standard DeltaGnotPrime? [ ]? Temp? Pressure? pH? Water [ ] ?

Reactants and Products are set at 1 Molar....Temp 298K.... Pressure 1atm....pH=7.....Water [ ] 55.5 Molar

29

Why does DeltaG=DeltaGnotPrime at standard conditions?

Because the [P] & [R] is constant at 1 and the ln of 1 = 0

30

What three things can Free Energy changes predict?

1. Direction of the rxn 2. [P] & [R] @ Eq 3. AMOUNT OF WORK it can do

31

What important thing does Gibbs free energy NOT tell us?

The rate of a reaction

32

What are two basic principles of bioenergetics?

1. Even with a +DeltaGnotPrime, the rxn can still go forward with the removal of product 2. You can ADD DeltaGnotPrimes of sequential reactions!

33

What are the two ways to make ATP?

1. Substrate level (rudimentary) 2. Oxidative Phosphorylation (BOOM TIME)

34

What are the three ways ATP hydrolysis is stabilized?

a. Separation of charge b. the inorganic phosphate gets stabilized by resonance c. the product ADP2-is ionized

35

How does ATP provide energy?

Group Transfers (not hydrolysis)

36

Are there other high energy compounds besides ATP?

YES

37

What are the three levels of metabolic regulation?

1. Allosteric 2. Hormonal regulation 3. [enzyme]