3.7 Memory Problems/Neurochemistry, and alzheimer's Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry- Carol > 3.7 Memory Problems/Neurochemistry, and alzheimer's > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.7 Memory Problems/Neurochemistry, and alzheimer's Deck (22):
1

Where are declarative/explicit memories principally stored?

1. Hippocampus-medial temporal lobe
2. Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus)

2

Where are skills/habit memories stored?

1. Striatum - part of reward circuit
2. Motor cortex
3. Cerebellum

3

Where is the memory for priming stored?

Neocortex

4

Where is the memory for emotional responses stored?

Amygdala
(Hippocampus)

5

Where is the memory for skeletal musculature stored?

Cerebellum
(Hippocampus)

6

Where is the memory for non-associative learning stored?

Reflex pathways

7

What are the 5 main neurotransmitters involved in memory?

1. Acetyl choline
2. Glutamate
3. Catecholamines
4. GABA
5. Serotonin

8

What role does serotonin play? What about in deficit?

Sleep
Hunger
Arousal
Mood

Deficit linked to depression; some antidepressants raise serotonin levels.

9

What role does dopamine play? In deficit?

Movement
Emotion
Attention
Learning

Too much - linked to schizophrenia
Too little- linked to tremors, decreased mobility in Parkinsons and ADHD

10

What role does ACh play? In deficit?

Muscle action
Learning & Memory
Attention & Arousal

ACh producing neurons degenerate as alzheimer's disease progresses
Causes depolarisation of nicotinic ACh ion channels, and second messenger deployment in muscarinic ACh channels

11

What role does noradrenalin play?

Alertness
Arousal

Too little- depressed mood, ADHD-like attention problems

12

What role does GABA play?

Inhibitory neurotransmitter

Too little linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia

13

What role does glutamate play?

Major excitatory neurotransmitter- main NT in neocortex + pyramidal neurons
Involved in memory

Oversupply can cause migraines or seizures (this why many people avoid MSG in food)
Acts on 3 receptors:
1. NMDA receptor- Na/K/Ca channel - the Ca++ influx = LT potentiation
2. Metabotropic receptor- IP3/other secondary messengers, regulates cellular activity
3. AMPA receptor- Na/K channel

Results in long term post-synaptic potentiation

Glutamine + H2O--> (glutaminase) --> glutamate + NH3

14

What role do the striatal interneurones play?

Motor control

15

What role does the Nucleus basalis of Meynert play?

Attention
Arousal

16

What role does the medial septal nucleus play?

Learning
Memory

17

What role does the brain stem (pedunculopontine) nuclei play?

Relays information to the thalamus

18

What is the role of the PPAR-gamma agonism?

Agonists of the PPAR-gamma reduce or prevent neuroinflammation
Modulate mitochondrial function

May improve mitochondrial function in alzheimer's disease

19

What is the role of phosphodiesterases?

PDE-9 hydrolises cGMP- reducing long term potentiation

May improve function in Alzheimer's disease

20

Aggregates of amyloid plaques and phosphorylated tau protein are found in which disease?

Alzheimer's disease

21

What is the role of Apolipoprotein E? How is it implicated in alzheimer's disease?

ApoE has a role in cholesterol metabolism, membrane stability and repair

The E4 variant is the largest known genetic risk factor for late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD)

22

Name 3 acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

1. Donepezil
2. Galantamine
3. Rivastigmine