Flashcards in 3.7 Memory Problems/Neurochemistry, and alzheimer's Deck (22):
Where are declarative/explicit memories principally stored?
1. Hippocampus-medial temporal lobe
2. Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus)
Where are skills/habit memories stored?
1. Striatum - part of reward circuit
2. Motor cortex
Where is the memory for priming stored?
Where is the memory for emotional responses stored?
Where is the memory for skeletal musculature stored?
Where is the memory for non-associative learning stored?
What are the 5 main neurotransmitters involved in memory?
1. Acetyl choline
What role does serotonin play? What about in deficit?
Deficit linked to depression; some antidepressants raise serotonin levels.
What role does dopamine play? In deficit?
Too much - linked to schizophrenia
Too little- linked to tremors, decreased mobility in Parkinsons and ADHD
What role does ACh play? In deficit?
Learning & Memory
Attention & Arousal
ACh producing neurons degenerate as alzheimer's disease progresses
Causes depolarisation of nicotinic ACh ion channels, and second messenger deployment in muscarinic ACh channels
What role does noradrenalin play?
Too little- depressed mood, ADHD-like attention problems
What role does GABA play?
Too little linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
What role does glutamate play?
Major excitatory neurotransmitter- main NT in neocortex + pyramidal neurons
Involved in memory
Oversupply can cause migraines or seizures (this why many people avoid MSG in food)
Acts on 3 receptors:
1. NMDA receptor- Na/K/Ca channel - the Ca++ influx = LT potentiation
2. Metabotropic receptor- IP3/other secondary messengers, regulates cellular activity
3. AMPA receptor- Na/K channel
Results in long term post-synaptic potentiation
Glutamine + H2O--> (glutaminase) --> glutamate + NH3
What role do the striatal interneurones play?
What role does the Nucleus basalis of Meynert play?
What role does the medial septal nucleus play?
What role does the brain stem (pedunculopontine) nuclei play?
Relays information to the thalamus
What is the role of the PPAR-gamma agonism?
Agonists of the PPAR-gamma reduce or prevent neuroinflammation
Modulate mitochondrial function
May improve mitochondrial function in alzheimer's disease
What is the role of phosphodiesterases?
PDE-9 hydrolises cGMP- reducing long term potentiation
May improve function in Alzheimer's disease
Aggregates of amyloid plaques and phosphorylated tau protein are found in which disease?
What is the role of Apolipoprotein E? How is it implicated in alzheimer's disease?
ApoE has a role in cholesterol metabolism, membrane stability and repair
The E4 variant is the largest known genetic risk factor for late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD)