Flashcards in 3a diseases headlines Deck (448)
Rates the favourability of the cervix (10 is good). Based on dilatation, position in vagina, effacement
Measures progress in labour.
-dilatation of cervix
-Fetal heart rate
Measures FHR and uterine contactions (you expect variability and accelerations), FHR 110-160, no decelerations. Not useful antenatally unless daily in high risk
Fetal scalp samples
Amnioscope to get blood sample. pH below 7.2 needs delivery as acidotic and hypoxic
Fine gauge needle and US. (15 weeks) Chromosomal abnormalities, CMV and toxoplasmosis, Sickle cell, CF and Thallasaemia. 1% miscarry
Chorionic villus sampling
Biopsy of trophoblast. (11 weeks (quicker)) Higher miscarriage rates than amniocentesis. PCR and FISH for results.
Sperm sample boundaries of viability
<32% motile= asthenospermia
Causes of male subfertility
Drug exposure (alcohol, smoking, steroids)
/10. At 1 and 5mins.
Resuscitation? Neuro outcome?
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) if mild sperm problems.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) if severe.
-mulitple follicular development
-ovulation and egg collection
-fertilisation and culture
Multiple pregnancy and ovary overstimulation risks
Combined oral contraceptives
Exert negative feedback on gonadotrophin release, inhibiting ovulation. Thin endometrium and thicken cervical plug. Withdrawal bleeds if 1 week break, if not then spotting
Progesterone side effects
Oestrogen side effects
Fluid retention and weight gain
Breast tenderness and fullness
Hormonal contraceptive negatives
Major complications (venous thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, migraine, stroke)
Minor side effects
IM injection every 3 months, reduced bone density. Progesterone
Morning after pill
What is the difference between IUDs and IUSs
IUD copper- toxic to sperm
IUS(system)- mirena (progestogen) hormonal.
General advantages and disadvantages
Protects from STIs
Male and female sterilisation
Fever, tachypnoea, malaise, RDS.
CXR, O2 sats
Pneumococcus, mycoplasma, haemophilus, staphylococcus, TB, viral
6 months to 6 years (2yo)
Upper airway obstruction (=stridor, barking cough, hoarse)
Caused by H. influenza B so went down cos of vaccine. Very acute, no preceding symptoms. Silent. Cant drink. Drooling. Soft stridor
Inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, narrowing
Wheeze, cough, breathless, chest tight
Worse at night, triggers, symptoms between exacerbations
Peak flow diary, sleep? exercise?
Salbutamol (ipratropium bromide if young)
Viral induced wheeze
Increased risk in preterm and maternal smoking, Small airways more likely to narrow and obstruct due to inflammation. Resolves by 5
Poor feeding, apnoea, dry cough, laboured breathing
Respiratory syncytial virus
PCR analysis of nasal secretions
Supportive: humidified oxygen
CTFR chromosome 7
Meconium ileus, pancreatic enzyme deficiency, malabsorption, atypical pneumonia
Hyperinflation, nasal polyp, sinusitis, failure to thrive
Sweat test 60-125
Physio, Dornase Alpha, pancreatic enzymes, high calorie diet, ICSI
Eustachian tubes short, horizontal and dont work
Examine tympanic membrane in all fever infants (bright red, bulging)
RSV, rhinovirus, pneumococcus
(can lead to with effusion, glue ear)
Tympanostomy tubes, for ottitis media with effusion. Adenoidectomy can be more effective