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Flashcards in Public health revision session Deck (72)
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1

what are the three domains of public health

Health improvement
Health protection
Improving services

2

What is health protection

Against spillages and risks and dangers and stuff

3

What is imrpoving services

Clinical governance
Evaluation

4

Healthy equality

Giving everyone the same thing

5

Health equity

Giving everyone the things needed to achieve thier health needs

6

Causes of health inequality

Place of residence
Race
Occupation
Gender
Religion
Economic status
Social capital

7

Horizontal equity

Equal treatment for equal need

8

Vertical equity

Unequal treatment for unequal need

9

Cohort study

Longitudinal study in similar groups with different risk factors and treatments

10

Advantages of cohort study

Good for rare exposure

11

Disadvantages of cohort study

Bad for rare diseases
Large sample size needed
Expensive

12

Case control study

Observational study looking at cause of a disease. Compares similar participants with disease and controls. Retrospectively

13

Advantages of case control

Quick
Good for rare outcomes
(you choose the people)

14

Disadvantages of case control

Recall bias
Dificulty finding appropriately matched controls

15

Cross sectional study

Observational study collecting data from a population at a specific point in time

16

Advantages of cross sectional

Quick
Cheap
Large sample size

17

Disadvantages of cross sectional

Risk of reserve causality
Bad for rare outcomes
Lead time bias

18

Randomised control trial

Interventional

19

Advantages of RCT

Low risk of bias and confounding

20

Disadvantages of RCT

Ethical issues (not giving best care)
Expensive
Drop out

21

How do you get over RCT ethical issues

Have clear stopping rules which are minimum standards of care which must be met and if they arent then participant stops

22

Incidence

Number of new cases within specific population in a specific time period

23

Prevalence

Number of cases present within a population in a specific time period

24

How do you calculate relative risk

Compares incidence or prevalence.
Work out the two rates then divide them

25

How do you calculate attributable risk

Relative risk - background rate

26

How do you calculate number needed to treat/harm

1/attributable risk and ALWAYS ROUND UP

27

Define sensitivity

percentage of people with the disease who have been correctly identified

28

Define specificity

percentage of people correctly excluded as disease free

29

Wilson and young screening criteria

Important disease
Understand cause
Recognisable early or latent phase
Simple, safe, precise and validated test
Acceptable to the population
Effective treatment with early detection, with better outcomes than late detection
Policy of who should be treated

30

What can cause association

Bias
Chance
Confounding
Reverse causality
True causation