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Categories of stem cells

Fertilized zygote--totipotent1. Embryonic stem cell--pleuripotent2. Fetal/perinatal stem cell3. Adult stem cell--multipotent4. Induced stem cell--pleuripotent


Induced pleuripotent stem cell

iPS cellProduced by reprogramming of adult somatic cellsRequires transdifferentiation and redifferentiation of fully differentiated cells into pleuripotent cells


Types of adult stem cells

1. mesenchymal/stromal2. hematopoetic3. neural


what is the ultimate validation of pluripotency seen in embryonic and induced stem cells

germline transmission


where do adult hematopoetic stem cells come from?

Bone marrowautogenous/allogeneictarget cells for bone marrow transplantation


where can mesenchymal/stromal stem cells come from?

Bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord, muscle, and other tissue (cartilage, tendon, tonsil, dental pulp)function to secrete trophic factorsimmunotolerant


T/FThe fate of a pluripotent cell to differentiation is unidirectional

FALSEinduced stem cells (iPS cell) can undergo transdifferentiation and re-differentiation reprogramming where a fully differentiated cell can be induced into a pluripotent state.