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prevalence vs incidence

prevalence: # instances of dz (new and old) in a population over a designated timeincidence: # of NEW cases of disease in a population over a designated time


endemic vs epidemic

endemic: usual or expected background rate of disease; sporadic infectionsepidemic: occurrence of dz in excess of the anticipated (endemic) rate


define syndrome

a clinical sign or group of clinical signs that characterize a disease or other abnormal condition


characteristics of good surveillance

1. ongoing (not just retrospective)2. systematic (otherwise it is subject to bias)3. analysis (make sense of the data)4. interpretation (to describe its clinical relevance)5. disseminate (communicate the information)


three main components of infection control

1. ongoing surveillance2. active control efforts3. qualified staff members


rates of infection with and without good surveillance

WITHOUT incr 18% in 5 yrsWITH decr by 7-48%


passive surveillance

practical, cost effectiveefficient; used most frequentlyuse of data, admission, bacT C&S, diagnostic information that is already availablelimitations: retro, bias, referral may underestimate


active surveillance

involves gathering data specific for infection control. expensive and time consumingcollecting nasal/rectal swabs of all patients--screeningno evidence that routine active surveillance is currently indicated


syndromic surveillance

involves analysis of certain clinical signs that may be indicators of infectious diseasebroad and nonspecific; may or may not indicate what disease is presentonly IDs potential problems that require further investigation (fever, diarrhea, vomiting)


environmental surveillance

identification of bacteria in surroundingsdoes not necessarily mean what you are culturing is causing infectionmay be minimally usefulEXCEPTION: use of biologic indicators for autoclave quality control


monitoring surgical site infection rates

# infections/# procedures


types of nosocomial infections by Nakamura et al Compendium 2012

catheter associated UTIpneumoniaSSIbloodstream infxn


T/Fuse of GI protectors may incr risk of aspiration pneumonia

TRUEin people well documented that incr gm 1 flora2010 JVECCS Tart et al in dogs show ~50% dogs w asp pneumonia were receiving H2 blockers


conditions that increase risk of aspiration pneumonia in small animals compendium 2012 Nakamura

1. laryngeal/esophageal disorders2. neuro dz (decr mentation and/or recumbency)3. feeding tubes4. recent sedation and/or anesthesia5. long distance physical exertion