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Flashcards in 4. Aquatic Ecosystems Seminar Deck (19)
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1

What impacts will climate have on plankton?

Shift in distribution
pH change, change in pollution toxicity
Wind -> death
Peak abundance differentially affected
Synergistic effects of pollutants unknown
Run off -> hummus allows toxic dinoflagellates to grow and blooms
Calcerous shell taxa reduced
More UV, less photosynthesis
Strat change, abundance change

2

What research should be carried out on plankton?

Data collection and predictive modelling
More direct sampling, less satellite data reliance
Study climate paramaters and physiology/behaviour
Effect of CO2 dissolution on phytoplankton
UV impact
Holistic models to assess primary and secondary production changes
Dynamic models with multifactors and food chain predictions

3

How could we ameliorate climate change impacts on plankton?

Reduce nutrient impact to coast
Control freshwater run-off for both silt and salinty
Reduce overfishing

4

What research should we do on seagrass?

Knowledge and distribution, abundance and composition
Lab and modelling studies on CO2 rise
Seagrass and ecosystem interactions - modelling
Temp effects on phenology
Monitor seagrass bed health

5

How could we ameliorate the effects of climate change on seagrass?

Control freshwater run off - silt and salinity
Buffer zones of coastal vegitation to protect from sediment
Monitor and control water quality
Reduce bottom trawling
Promote coral reefs to reduce storm effects and contruct structures
Manage protected areas

6

How could climate change impact seagrass?

More biomass (CO2)
Shift Southwards in distribution
Change in composition
Change in freq and time of flower/seeding
Storms -> destruction
Fewer UV intolerant species
Air temp may damage seagrass at surface
Less seagrass means less fish

7

How might climate change impact mangroves?

More productivity
Migration landward
Les forest cover due to storms
Evaporation so more salinity so shift in spp distribution (also heat)
Less rainfall so invasion of salt marshes and freshwater, more salinity and less growth
More rainfall, more productivity

8

What would happen if we lost mangroves?

Less protection form storms on the coast
Reduced fishery productivity
Less water uptake therefore more freshwater and sedimemt run off

9

What mangrove research should we do?

UV and chem impacts
Ecosystem
Monitor mangroves and associated species for warning of changes
Coastline sea level monitoring to understand threat
Response to pollution

10

How could we reduce the threat to mangroves?

Monitor and control coastal development
Reduce pollutants
Initaite mangrove conservation programmes
Control fishing, esp. dredging in mangrove areas

11

How might climate change impact kelp forests?

Shift distribution - 20C+ damage
Life cycle impact by temp
Changes in wind currents reduce nutrients
Storms shift distribution
Increase sea levels, landward migration
UV damage
Acidification reduces growth
Less predators will allow invasive herbivores to munch on kelp

12

What research should we do on help forests?

Monitor ecosystems
Research phenology
Adaptation to climate change between species
Predictive models

13

How can we reduce the impacts of cliamte change on kelp forests?

Protected areas
Encourage ecotourism (???????)
Reduce sediment input
Reduce nutrient and pollutant input
Prevent overfishing of predators to reduce effect of herbivores
Herbivore control
Artificial reefs
Kelp transplant

14

How could climate change impact rocky shores?

Outward movement of tropical and temperate species
Loss of endemic species
Reduction in canopy forming seaweeds....
Hot days mean more dieback of seaweed
Sea level increase so tidal species lost
Damage from storms from less protective kelp
Run off reduces salinity
Lower pH, less calcification, less ket taxa eg. crustacea
Change in community composition
Alteration of reproductive timings
Fertility changes
More UV, Less Photosynthesis

15

What research should we do on rocky shores?

Imaging for species distribution and abundance
Survey for future comparison
Indentify reasons for drop in fertility
Pollution knowledge
Model predictions

16

How could we reduce the impact of climate change on rocky shores?

Control coastal devleopment
Less sediment input
Less nutrient input
Less pollution
Protected areas

17

What are the climate change impacts on tropical coral reefs?

Bleaching
Worsened by UV
Fewer nutrients so less resistance to thermal stress
Acidification leads to erosion
Storms remove protection and cause damage
Run off -> more sediment which causes turbidity and smothering
More susceptible to disease
Can't keep pace with sea level rises
Little Southward expansion because fewer carbonates in South and poorer habitat quality
Knock on effect if coral lost
Could be irreversible

18

What research should we do on coral reefs?

Structure of the community
Adaptive ability
Modelling of impact
Modelling of Southward expansion
Understand molecular biology

19

How could we reduce the climate change impacts on tropical coral reefs?

Reduce sediment and nutrient run off
Reduce pesticide input - GM crops?
Control predator starfish populations
Eliminate overfishing of grazers
Protected areas
Reduce tourism
Artificial reefs?
Sustainable fishing
Education
NGO funding