4 Behavioral Assessment / 04.06 Functional Analysis - Ethical Issues, Low f Behavior, Brief Functional Analysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4 Behavioral Assessment / 04.06 Functional Analysis - Ethical Issues, Low f Behavior, Brief Functional Analysis Deck (22):
1

Functional analysis and other functional assessment methods are most likely to yield similar results when
analogue conditions approximate those of the natural environment.
analogue conditions are highly discriminable from the natural environment.
analogue conditions are those used by Iwata et al., (1994/1982).
analogue conditions are highly discriminable from each other.

analogue conditions approximate those of the natural environment.

When analogue and descriptive stimulus situations are similar, they are likely to yield accurate and similar results. (Carr et al, 1999, p. 24)

2

A problem with assessing low-frequency behaviors is that they
are manipulated too easily.
tend to not serve a function.
are not easily occasioned.
are not operant behaviors.

are not easily occasioned.

3

Using functional analysis methodology with very dangerous behavior is an ethical issue because such behaviors
usually have primarily a medical cause.
seldom have a clear function.
are intentionally provoked.
(all of the others)

are intentionally provoked.

With functional analysis, the target behavior is intentionally provoked (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 506). If doing so would present an unaccepted risk, other methods would be advised. (Iwata et al, 2000, p. 72)

4

Characteristics of a structural analysis include
use of a changing criterion design.
use of a multiple baseline design.
5 - 10 minute sessions.
10 - 20 minute sessions.

5 - 10 minute sessions.
Structural analysis sessions are 5 - 10 minutes in duration and employ a multielement design. (Wacker et al, 1999, p. 46)

5

An advantage of brief functional analysis is
the risk of establishing a reinforcement history for the undesirable behavior is minimized.
the risk of establishing a reinforcement history for the desirable behavior is minimized.
it is well suited when the problem behavior is of low frequency.
(all of the others)

the risk of establishing a reinforcement history for the undesirable behavior is minimized.

6

You suspect automatic reinforcement in the form of sensory stimulation as a possible controlling variable. Which conditions might you use to evaluate this hypothesis?
predictable vs. random schedules
brief vs. long intertrial interval
difficult vs. easy tasks.
student vs. teacher selected tasks

brief vs. long intertrial interval

Long intertrial intervals gives the student "down time" with nothing to do, except, of course, to engage in behavior that is automatically reinforced. (Munk & Karsh, 1999)

7

Generally, the sequence of phases in a brief functional analysis are
descriptive assessment, structural analysis, functional analysis.
structural analysis, descriptive assessment, functional analysis.
interview, descriptive analysis, functional analysis.
descriptive assessment, structural assessment, functional analysis.

descriptive assessment, structural analysis, functional analysis.

Phase 1-descriptive assessment (including interview, scatterplot, ABC data)
Phase 2-structural analysis (which is an experimental evaluation focusing on antecedent conditions)
Phase 3-functional analysis (which is an experimental evaluation focusing on controlling consequences-i.e., function).
(Wacker et al, 1999)

8

A brief functional analysis involves
conditions 5 to 10 minutes in duration.
initially a full functional analysis.
gradually changing conditions.
(all of the others)

conditions 5 to 10 minutes in duration.

It begins with descriptive data collection used to develop a preliminary hypothesis. Analogue conditions are then developed to test the hypothesis. Sessions are usually 5 to 10 minutes in duration. (Wacker et al, 1999, p. 35)

9

Characteristics of a structural analysis include
30 - 60 minute sessions.
use of a multielement design.
use of a multiple baseline design.
10 - 20 minute sessions.

use of a multielement design.

Structural analysis sessions are 5 - 10 minutes in duration and employ a multielement design. (Wacker et al, 1999, p. 46)

10

Using functional analysis methodology with low-frequency behaviors that are not easily evoked
requires "custom-made" analogue conditions.
is usually advised over other methods.
is usually ill-advised.
tends to result in identification of an escape function.

is usually ill-advised.

For functional analysis methodology to be successful, the target behavior must be seen during the experimental conditions. If it is difficult to occasion the target behavior (or behaviors that are part of the same response class), an alternative methodology should be used. (Iwata et al, 2000, p. 72; Sprague & Horner, 2000, p. 101)

11

Assessment of behaviors maintained by amelioration of painful stimulation should not employ
functional analysis methodology, unless one contrives painful stimulation.
direct observation.
descriptive analysis methodology, unless one takes can control the variables that cause pain.
functional analysis methodology, unless one takes advantage of naturally occurring pain.

functional analysis methodology, unless one takes advantage of naturally occurring pain.

Using typical functional analysis methodology, you would have to provide painful stimulation, then remove it contingent upon the target behavior. This would usually be ethically untenable. (Iwata et al, 2000, p. 72) However, you could take advantage of periods of naturally occurring pain to run your analogue conditions (O'Reilly, 1997; O'Reilly, et al, 2000).

12

An advantage of doing descriptive and structural analyses before doing a functional analysis is that it
may enable empirical verification of the hypotheses, thus rendering the functional analysis unnecessary.
enables a streamlining of the ABC data to be collected.
enables a streamlining of the tasks, time, and consequences to be tested in the functional analysis.
could be conducted by parents with minimal assistance.

enables a streamlining of the tasks, time, and consequences to be tested in the functional analysis.

Descriptive information and antecedents that occasion the behavior help to determine the antecedents and consequences to be used in the functional analysis, resulting in an efficient use of time and resources. (Wacker et al, 1999, p. 44)

13

An advantage of brief functional analysis is
a hypothesis might be derived from an analysis of antecedents.
that establishing a reinforcement history for the desirable behavior is maximized.
it is well suited when the problem behavior is of low frequency.
(all of the others)


a hypothesis might be derived from an analysis of antecedents.
If a hypothesis could be derived from an analysis of antecedents (using a brief functional analysis or structural analysis) or other descriptive data, the therapist might decide that continuing on to a full analogue assessment is unnecessary. Furthermore, brief functional analysis analogue conditions minimize the number of target behavior/reinforcement pairings, thus reducing the chance that the inappropriate behavior would be strengthened. (Wacker et al, 1999, p. 33)

14

Functional analysis sessions are conducted in the child's classroom with his regular teacher when his peers are at recess. This may yield
potentially useful information, but at the cost of experimental control.
valid results unless that behavior is maintained by peer automatic reinforcement.
less valid results than if sessions were conducted in a separate setting with a therapist, regardless of the function.
valid results unless that behavior is maintained by peer attention.

valid results unless that behavior is maintained by peer attention.

When analogue and descriptive stimulus situations are similar, they are likely to yield accurate and similar results. Note that if the reinforcer is peer attention and the peers aren't present, you probably won't see the behavior. (Carr et al, 1999, p. 24; Piazza et al, 2003)

15

Characteristics of a structural analysis include
using the four standardized experimental conditions developed by Iwata et al. (1994).
a focus on manipulating consequences while holding other factors constant.
using information gathered from a functional analysis to construct experimental conditions.
using information gathered from a descriptive assessment to construct experimental conditions.

using information gathered from a descriptive assessment to construct experimental conditions.

Structural analysis is the second phase of brief functional analysis. It uses information gathered from a descriptive assessment (the first phase) to construct experimental conditions. Results enable an evaluation of different antecedent variables (e.g., various levels of attention, task difficulty, and task preferences) on behavior. (Wacker et al, 1999)

16

A young adult with severe MR exhibits dangerous aggressive behavior about once a month described by staff as occurring "out of the blue." You should
conduct a functional assessment using methods other than functional analysis.
disregard function and focus exclusively on training staff how to respond to this behavior.
conduct a functional analysis using methods such as interview, scatter plot, and ABC data.
conduct a functional analysis.

conduct a functional assessment using methods other than functional analysis.

Because the behavior is infrequent and dangerous, it would not be prudent to conduct a functional analysis. That is, you would not want to conduct experimental sessions to determine in which type of session the behavior is most frequent. You would probably not get enough responses to adequately analyze the conditions and you would be causing undue risk. (Sprague & Horner, 2000)

17

Advocates of brief functional analysis maintain that
an extended functional analysis is sometimes necessary.
it is more valid than extended functional analysis.
an extended functional analysis is almost never necessary.
it is critical to follow through with the original analogue conditions until clear trends are evident.

an extended functional analysis is sometimes necessary.

Advocates of brief functional analysis maintain that an extended functional analysis (i.e., sessions that are longer in duration than 5 to 10 minutes and more of these sessions) is sometimes necessary and at other times no functional (experimental) analysis is needed. Furthermore, many of these advocates maintain that an extended functional analysis is the most valid form of functional assessment. Finally, brief functional analysis is a dynamic process. Conditions and procedures are changed as needed and as indicated by the data. (Wacker et al, 1999)

18

An advantage of brief functional analysis is
it is well suited when there is little time.
a hypothesis might be derived from an analysis of antecedents.
the avoidance of establishing a significant reinforcement history for the undesirable behavior.
(all of the others)

all others

If a hypothesis could be derived from an analysis of antecedents (using a brief functional analysis or structural analysis) or other descriptive data, the therapist might decide that continuing on to a full analogue assessment is unnecessary. Furthermore, brief functional analysis analogue conditions minimize the number of target behavior/reinforcement pairings, thus reducing the chance that the inappropriate behavior would be strengthened. (Wacker et al, 1999, p. 33)

19

An analogue assessment using therapists is not likely to yield valid results if the problem behavior
is maintained by peer reactions.
occurs under a variety of demand conditions.
is maintained by adult attention.
(all of the others)

is maintained by peer reactions.

To yield valid results, the analogue evaluation must provide the functional reinforcer. In this example, the therapist provides all of the reinforcers. There can be no peer reaction, and therefore, the function may not be identified. (Carr et al, 1999, p. 24; Piazza et al, 2003)

20

A brief functional analysis usually involves
an initial descriptive analysis.
conditions 5 to 10 minutes in duration.
rapidly changing conditions.
(all of the others)

all others

21

An analogue assessment may not yield valid results if the function of the problem behavior
is related to attention.
occurs under a variety of demand conditions.
is onset of pain.
is maintained by sensory stimulation.

onset of pain

To yield valid results, the analogue evaluation must provide the functional reinforcer-pain. A therapist cannot manipulate pain contingent upon behavior (at least not ethically). (Iwata et al, 2000, p. 72)

22

Characteristics of a structural analysis include
focus on antecedent evaluation.
use of a multielement design.
5 - 10 minute sessions.
(all of the others)

all others

Structural analysis is the second phase of brief functional analysis. It uses information gathered from a descriptive assessment (the first phase) to construct 5 - 10 minute experimental sessions conducted in a multielement design fashion. Results enable an evaluation of different antecedent variables (e.g., various levels of attention, task difficulty, and task preferences) on behavior. (Wacker et al, 1999)

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