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IPAP A&P1 Head/Neck/Trunk > 40X > Flashcards

Flashcards in 40X Deck (113):
1

What are the 2 regoins of the skull?

1) Neurocranium
2) Facial Skeleton

2

What bones does the Neurocranium consist of?

Frontal
Parietal x2
Temporal x2
occipital
sphenoid
ethmoid

3

What comprises the Cranial Vault?

Calvaria (Skullcap)- domelike roof, frontal, occipital, & parietal bones

Basicranium (cranial base) floor of cranium, occipital, sphenoid, temporal, vomer, palatine, portion of maxillae

4

Which bone forms forehead, roof of orbits &; anterior cranial floor?

Frontal bone

5

Which bone forms the sides and roof of cranium?

parietal bones

6

Name all the parts of the temporal bone?

temporal squama
zygomatic process
external auditory meatus
mastoid process
styloid process
stylomastoid foramen
mandibular fossa
petrous portion
carotid foramen
jugular foramen

7

what passes through the stylomastoid foramen?

CN VII

8

What passes through the petrous portion?

CN VIII

9

name the different sections of the occipital bone?

Foaramen magnum
occipital condyles
external occipital protuberance attachment for ligamentum nuchae
superior/inferior nuchal lines

10

Which cranial bone is in the middle part of the base of skull & know as "Keystone" b/c it articulates w/all other cranial bones?

sphenoid bone

11

What are the attachment sites for the jaw muscles known as on the sphenoid bone?

Pterygoid processes

12

What do the greater wings of the sphenoid bone form in the cranium?

anterolateral floor of the cranium & lateral part of skull

13

What do the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone form?

posterior part of orbit of eye & part of cranium floor

14

What is the passage way for the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens &; ophthalmic nerves (CN III, IV, VI, & V1)

Superior orbital fissue

15

What does Maxillary Branch of trigeminal (CN V2) pass through on the Sphenoid bone

Forame rotundum

16

What transmits the mandibular nerve (CN V3) through the sphenoid bone?

Foramen ovale

17

What comprises the Sella Turcica?

Ant ridge= tuberculum sellae
Cent. Depression= hypophyseal fossa
Post Ridge= dorsum sellae

18

what does the Sella turcica hold?

pituitary gland

19

Which bone forms part of the anterior portion of the cranial floor, the medial wall of the orbits, the superior portion of the nasal septum, and most of the superior side walls of the nasal cavity. It is a major superior supporting structure of the nasal cavity?

Ethmoid bone

20

Where are the ethmoid sinuses?

in lateral masses

21

what forms the upper portion of nasal septum?

perpendicular plate

22

What forms the turbinates?

Superior and middle conchae

23

What does the superior/ middle conchae do?

Superior: participates in smell (olfactory receptors
increase vascular surface area warming air
cause inhaled air to swirl & impact mucus filter air

24

What bones make up the facial skeleton?

Lacrimal x2
nasal x2
maxillae x2
zygomatic x2
palatine x 2
inferior nasal conchae x 2
mandible
vomer

25

what forms the skeleton of upper jaw &; fixed to cranial base?

maxillae

26

what forms lower jaw & articulates w/ cranial base &; is moveable

mandible

27

What processes hold teeth in upper &; lower jaw?

Alveolar process

28

What bone forms cheekbones &; is lateral wall of orbit along with sphnoid

Zygomatic

29

This bone is part of the medial wall of orbit & what does it house?

Lacrimal bone; Lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac

30

This bone is “L” shaped with part of it forming hard palate?

Palatine

31

This is the posterior portion of the nasal septum?

Vomer

32

What forms the Nasal septum?

Vomer, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, & septal cartilage

33

Which bones form the orbits?

Maxillary lacrimal
Frontal sphenoid
Zygomatic palantine
Ethmoid

34

What are the 5 important foramen that are associated with the orbit?

Optic foramen Supraorbital foramen
Superior orbital fissure lacrimal fossa
Inferior orbital fissure

35

What is the location and what structures passing through the magnum foramen?

Occipital bone: medulla oblongata & its membranes, CN XI, & vertebral/ spinal arteries

36

What is the location and what structures passing through the mandibular foramen?

Medial surface of ramus of mandible; Inferior alveolar nerve & blood vessels

37

What is the location and what structures passing through the mental foramen?

INFERIOR TO 2ND PREMOLAR TOOTH IN MANDIBLE; mental nerve and vessels

38

What is the location and what structures passing through the olfactory foramen?

Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone; CN I (olfactory)

39

What is the location and what structures passing through the optic foramen?

What is the location and what structures passing through the optic foramen?

40

What is the location and what structures passing through the foramen ovale?

Greater wing of sphenoid bone; mandibular branch of CN V (trigeminal)

41

What is the location and what structures passing through the foramen rotundum?

Junc. Of anterior & medial parts of sphenoid; maxillary branch of CN V (trigeminal)

42

What is the location and what structures passing through the Stylomastoid foramen?

Between styloid & mastoid process of temporal bone; CN VII (Facial) & stylomastoid artery

43

What are sutures and where are they found?

Immovable joints found only between skull bones

44

What are the sutures of primary importance?

Coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal, & squamous

45

What suture unite the parietal and occipital bones?

Lambdoid

46

What suture unites the 2 parietal bones?

Sagittal

47

What suture unites the frontal & both parietal bones?

Coronal

48

What suture unites the parietal & temporal bones?

Squamous

49

What are the 2 major functions of fontanels?

Enable fetal skull to modify size & shape as it passes through birth canal

Permit rapid growth of brain during infancy

50

What are cavities in bones of skull that communicate w/nasal cavity?

Paranasal Sinuses

51

What are the purposes of the paranasal sinuses?

Lighten skull, & resonating chambers for speech

52

Which cranial bones contain sinuses?

Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, & maxillae

53

What muscles move the mandible?

Masseter, temporalis, & pterygoids

54

Muscles that move the mandible are innervated by which nerve?

CN V (Trigeminal), mandibular division (V3)

55

Which muscles elevate the mandible?

Temporalis & Masseter

56

Which muscle retracts the mandible?

Temporalis

57

Which is the only muscle that protracts & depresses the mandible (opens jaw)?

Lateral pterygoid

58

What are the 4 extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Genioglossus
palatoglossus
Styloglossus
hyoglossus

59

Which muscle of the tongue relaxes during anesthesia allowing the tongue to fall back blocking the airway, requiring intubation?

Genioglossus

60

The muscles that produce facial expression are all innervated by which nerve?

Facial nerve (CN VII)

61

What is Bell’s palsy & what is its cause?

Facial paralysis; idiopathic

62

What are the branches of the Facial nerve (CN VII)?

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Marginal Mandibular
Carvical

63

Where does the terminal branches of the facial nerve (CN VII) arise from?

Parotid plexus w/in parotid gland

64

Which muscle closes the eye?

Orbicularis oculi

65

Which muscle puckers the mouth?

Orbicularis oris

66

This muscle assists in whistling, blowing, sucking, & chewing?

Buccinator, muscular portion of cheeks

67

This muscle opens the eye, but is NOT a muscle of facial expression?

Lavator palpebrae superioris

68

What is the action / innervation of occipitofrontalis?

A: Elevates eyebrows & wrinkles skin of forehead horizontally as in look of surprise

I: Temporal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

69

What is the action / innervation of Orbicularis oris?

A: closes & protrudes lips; against teeth; shapes during speech

I: Buccal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

70

What is the action / Innervation of Zygomaticus Major / minor?

A: Maj- draws angle of mouth superiorly & laterally (like smiling)

Min- Raises (elevates) upper lip, exposing Maxillary teeth

I: Zygomatic & buccal branches of facial nerve (CV VII)

71

What is the action / innervation of Levator labii superioris?

A: raise upper lip

I: zygomatic branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

72

What is the action / innervation of Depressor labii inferioris?

A: depresses lower lip

I: marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

73

What is the action / innervation of depressor anguli oris?

A: draws angle of mouth laterally & inferiorly

I: marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

74

What is the action / innervation of Buccinator?

A: presses checks against teeth / lips; assists in mastication by keeping food between teeth

I: buccal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

75

What is the action / innervation of orbicularis oris?

A: closes & protrudes lips; compresses lips against teeth & shapes lips during speech

I: buccal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

76

What is the action / innervation of Risorius?

A: draws angle of mouth laterally (grimacing)

I: buccal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

77

What is the action / innervation of Mentalis?

A: elevate & protrudes lower lips & pulls up skin of chin (pouting)

I: marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

78

What is the action / innervation of Platysma?

A: draws outer part of lower lip inferiorly & posteriorly depresses mandible

I: cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

79

What is the action / innervation of orbicularis oculi?

A: closes & squints eye, depresses upper eyelid & elevate lower eyelid

I: temporal & zygomatic branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

80

What is the action / innervation of corrugator supercilia?

A: draws eyebrow inferiorly & medially, wrinkles skin of forehead vertically

I: temporal branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

81

What is the V1 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) known as ad what does it cutaneous stimulation?

Ophthalmic; superior portion of head, forehead, & bridge of nose

82

What is the V2 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) known as ad what does it cutaneous stimulation?

Maxillary; aspect lateral to eyes, medial portion of cheeks, upper lip, base of nose

83

What is the V3 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) known as ad what does it cutaneous stimulation?

Mandibular; lateral portion of cheek, chin, lower lip

84

What are the layers of the Scalp?

S: skin

C: (Sub-q) Connective tissue

A: Aponeurosis (epicranial aponeurosis)

L: Loose Connective Tissue (“Danger Space”, loose areolar CT)

P: Pericranium

85

Which units of the scalp are intimately connected and move as a unit?

1st 3 layers

86

This layer of the scalp is termed the “Danger Space” and why?

4th layer (loose CT); b/c pus, blood, or infection that can spread easily in it and it acts as a sponge b/c of many potential spaces that may distend w/fluid resulting form injury / infection and possibly pass into cranial cavity through emissary veins

87

Which bone is a unique component of the axial skeleton in that it doesn’t articulate w/ other bones?

Hyoid

88

What does the hyoid bone consist of?

Horizontal body, paired proections (lesser & greater horns),

u-shaped

89

What does the hyoid bone do?

Supports tongue & provides attachment for tongue, neck & pharyngeal muscles

90

Where does the sternocleidomastoid muscle originate / insert / innervated by?

O: sternum & clavicle

I: Mastoid process of temporal bone

Inner: spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)

91

What is the action of the sternocleidomastoid muscle when both contract?

Flex cervical vertebrae (chin to manubrium) & extend head (chin forward, keeping head level)

92

What is the action when only one sternocleidomastoid contracts?

Laterally flexes neck & rotates face in opposite direction

93

What innervates the Sternocleidomastoid & trapezius?

CN XI Accessory Nerve

94

What vessel and nerve are superficial to the sternocleidomastoid?

External jugular vein & great auricular nerve

95

Where is the suboccipital region located?

Triangular area inferior to occipital region of head

96

What are the 4 small muscle of the suboccipital region?

Rectus capitis posterior (Major & minor) &
Obliquus capitis (inferior & Superior)

97

What do the muscles of the suboccipital mainly cause?

Flexion, extension, lateral bending, &/or rotation @ atlanto-occipital & atlanto-axial joints

98

What are the 2 groups of muscles of the anterior neck?

Suprahyoid muscles
Infrahyoid muscle

99

What action do both groups of anterior neck muscles have on the hyoid bone?

Stabilize bone, allowing to serve as firm base on which tongue can move

100

What are the suprahyoid muscles?

Digastric
Stylohyoid
Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid

101

What do the suprahyoid bone do as a group?

Elevate hyoid bone, floor of oral cavity & tongue during swallowing

102

What are the infrahyoid muscles?

Omohyoid
Sternohyoid
Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid

103

Infrahyoid muscles mainly do what & are known as what?

Depress hyoid & some move larynx during swallowing & speech; known as “strap” due to ribbon like appearance

104

Where do the scalene muscle groups connect?

Cervical vertebrae & uppermost ribs

105

What do the scalene muscles do?

Flex, laterally flex & rotate the head

*Participate in forced inspiration*

106

What are the scalene muscles innervated by?

Cervical spinal nerves (C-3-C-8)

107

What are the muscles of inhalation (inspiration)?

Sternocleidomastoid
Scalene
External intercostals
Diaphragm

108

What are the muscles of exhalation?

Intercostal muscles
External/Internal oblique
Transvers abdominals
Rectus abdominis

109

Where do the extrinsic muscles of the eye insert?

Sclera of eye

110

What are the extrinsic muscles of the eye?

Superior rectus
Medial rectus
Inferior rectus
Lateral rectus
Superior oblique
Inferior oblique

111

Which extrinsic eye muscles are innervated by CN III (oculomotor)?

Superior rectus
Medial rectus
Inferior rectus
Inferior oblique

112

What extrinsic eye muscle is innervated by CN IV (Trochlear)?

Superior oblique

113

What extrinsic eye muscle is innervated by CN VI (abducens)?

Lateral rectus