41X Flashcards Preview

IPAP A&P1 Head/Neck/Trunk > 41X > Flashcards

Flashcards in 41X Deck (54):
1

What branches into the R common carotid & R subclavian artery?

Brachiocephalic trunk

2

What arise independently from the aortic arch?

L subclavian & L common carotid

3

These are direct branches from the subclavian arteries that course through transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae?

Vertebral arteries

4

What do the internal carotid arteries branch off of?

Common carotid arteries

5

Where do the internal carotid arteries enter skull?

Through carotid canal(s) (carotid foramen (foramina))

6

Where do the inferior carotid arteries go to?

Inferior anterior surface of brain

7

This supplies the external skull as branches of maxillary & superficial temporal branches?

External Carotid arteries

8

What supplies the eyeballs & parts of brain with blood?

Internal carotid arteries

9

What is the Arterial circle of Willis?

Is an anastomosis;

connects posterior & anterior blood supplies to brain

interconnecting basilar artery w/ internal carotid arteries

10

The external and internal jugular veins drain the head and neck into?

Superior vena cava

11

The Dural venous sinuses empty into?

Internal jugular veins

12

Which lymphatic duct drains the head and upper right extremity?

Right lymphatic duct

13

Which lymphatic duct drains the majority of the bodies lymphatic fluid back to venous blood?

Thoracic duct

14

What is the only moveable joint in the head?

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

15

What is between the mandibular fossa (temporal bone) & head of the mandible (condylar process of ramus of mandible)?

Articular disc

16

What are the muscles of TMJ?

Temporal
Masseter
Lateral pterygoid
Medial pterygoid

17

What are the subdivision of the posterior triangle of neck?

Occipital triangle

Subclavian triangle

18

How did the occipital triangle recieve its name, what is most important nerve crossing it & what are its borders?

1) occipital artery @ apex
2) accessory nerve
3) Anterior Border: Sternocleidomastoid
posterior border: Trapezius
inferior border: superior
surface of the belly of Omohyoid muscle

19

How did the subclavian triangle recieve its name, what is it also known as & what are its borders?

1) contains subclavian artery

2) Supraclavicular triangle

3) Borders are:
belly of omohyoid
sternocleidomastoid &
clavicle

20

What are the names of the anterior neck triangles?

Submandibular triangle
Submental triangle
Carotid triangle
muscular triangle

21

what are the borders of the submental triangle?

Inferior: body of hyoid

Lateral: L/R bellies of digastric muscles

Floor: 2 mylohyoid muscles

22

what does the submental triangle contain?

submental lymph nodes

23

what are the borders of the submandibular triangle?

inferior border of mandible

anterior & posterior bellie of digastric muscles

24

what does the submandibular triangle contain?

submandibular gland & facial artery/vein

25

what are the borders of the Carotid triangle?

superior bellies of omohyoid

posterior bellies of digastric &

anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

26

what does the carotid triangle contain?

common carotid artery ascends w/in it

(as well as internal & external carotids)

internal jugular vein
vagus nerve
thyroid gland &
larynx

27

where does the common carotid divide into internal and external carotid arteries?

@ the level of the thyroid cartilage

28

what are the borders of the muscular triangle?

superior belly of omohyoid

anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

median plane of neck

29

what does the muscular triangle contain?

infrahyoid muscles

viscera of neck, such as thyroid & parathyroid glands

trachea
larynx

30

what are the transient nerves of the neck?

vagus & phrenic nerve

31

What does the vagus nerve accompany on its way to thorax & what triangles can it be found in?

accompanies carotid artery & internal jugular vein

found in carotid & submandibular triangles

32

Where does the phrenic nerve pass on its way to innervate diaphragm?

along anterior scalene muscle

33

How many regoins of the vertebral colum and what are they/# of vertebrae in each?

5 Regions;

Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (5, fused)
Coccyx (4, fused)

34

how many normal curves of the vertebral column & what are they?

4;
cervical & lumbar anteriorly convex

thoracic & sacral anteriorly concave

35

where are intervertebral discs located & what do they permit?

1) between adjacent vertebrae from 2nd cervical (axis) to sacrum

2) permit variou movement & absorb vertical shock

36

what curves are primary & secondary?

primary: thoracic & sacral form during fetal development

secondary: cervical (when infant raises head @ 4 months
lumbar form when infant sits/begin to walk

37

What is kyphosis?

(humpback) abnormal thoracic curve

38

What is a lordosis?

(sway back) anterior rotation of pelvis @ hip joint producing abnormal lumbar curvature

39

What is scoliosis?

(curved back) abnormal lateral curvature that accompanid by rotation of vertebrae

40

What forms the spinal canal?

all vertebral foramina together

41

What creates an intervertebral foramina?

2 vertebral notches (1 superior & 1 inferior)

42

What is the 1st cervical vertebra known as/ what it does?

atlas, supports skull

43

What is 2nd cervical vertebra known as/ what it does?

axis, permits side-to-side rotation of head

44

What is the 7th cervical vertebra known as?

vertebra prominens, has a long spinous process

45

what are the characteristics of C3-C6 vertebrae?

smaller bodies but larger spinal canals

Transverse processes: shorter w/ transverse foramen for vertebral artey

bifid spinous processes

46

What are the 2 craniovertebral joints?

Alanto-occipital - between atlas & occipital bone

Atlantoaxial- between atlas & axis

47

What type of joints are the craniovertebral joints, range ove motion compared to other vertebrae & their articulations?

1) synovial joint
2) wide range compared to other vertebral joints
3) articulate w/ occipital condyles, atlas, & axis

48

What does the "ring of bone" of atlas have?

superior facets for occipital condyles

49

what process does the axis have?

Dens or odontoid process is the body of axis

50

this is a continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament across central atlantoaxial joint trhough foramen magnum to central floor of cranial cavity

tectorial membrane

51

What is a hangman's fracture & what are causes?

fracture of both pedicles of vertebra C2

forcible hyperextension of head

52

Characteristics of thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12)

larger / stronger bodies

longer transverse/ spinous processes

Facets/ demifacets on body for head of rib

Facets of transverse processes (T1-T10) for tubercle of rib

53

What are the largest / strongest vertebrae & how many are there?

Lumbar vertebrae; 5

54

Lumbar vertebrae characteristics?

Strongest / largest

short/ thick spinous / transverse processes for back musculature