Flashcards in 41X Deck (54):
What branches into the R common carotid & R subclavian artery?
What arise independently from the aortic arch?
L subclavian & L common carotid
These are direct branches from the subclavian arteries that course through transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae?
What do the internal carotid arteries branch off of?
Common carotid arteries
Where do the internal carotid arteries enter skull?
Through carotid canal(s) (carotid foramen (foramina))
Where do the inferior carotid arteries go to?
Inferior anterior surface of brain
This supplies the external skull as branches of maxillary & superficial temporal branches?
External Carotid arteries
What supplies the eyeballs & parts of brain with blood?
Internal carotid arteries
What is the Arterial circle of Willis?
Is an anastomosis;
connects posterior & anterior blood supplies to brain
interconnecting basilar artery w/ internal carotid arteries
The external and internal jugular veins drain the head and neck into?
Superior vena cava
The Dural venous sinuses empty into?
Internal jugular veins
Which lymphatic duct drains the head and upper right extremity?
Right lymphatic duct
Which lymphatic duct drains the majority of the bodies lymphatic fluid back to venous blood?
What is the only moveable joint in the head?
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
What is between the mandibular fossa (temporal bone) & head of the mandible (condylar process of ramus of mandible)?
What are the muscles of TMJ?
What are the subdivision of the posterior triangle of neck?
How did the occipital triangle recieve its name, what is most important nerve crossing it & what are its borders?
1) occipital artery @ apex
2) accessory nerve
3) Anterior Border: Sternocleidomastoid
posterior border: Trapezius
inferior border: superior
surface of the belly of Omohyoid muscle
How did the subclavian triangle recieve its name, what is it also known as & what are its borders?
1) contains subclavian artery
2) Supraclavicular triangle
3) Borders are:
belly of omohyoid
What are the names of the anterior neck triangles?
what are the borders of the submental triangle?
Inferior: body of hyoid
Lateral: L/R bellies of digastric muscles
Floor: 2 mylohyoid muscles
what does the submental triangle contain?
submental lymph nodes
what are the borders of the submandibular triangle?
inferior border of mandible
anterior & posterior bellie of digastric muscles
what does the submandibular triangle contain?
submandibular gland & facial artery/vein
what are the borders of the Carotid triangle?
superior bellies of omohyoid
posterior bellies of digastric &
anterior border of sternocleidomastoid
what does the carotid triangle contain?
common carotid artery ascends w/in it
(as well as internal & external carotids)
internal jugular vein
thyroid gland &
where does the common carotid divide into internal and external carotid arteries?
@ the level of the thyroid cartilage
what are the borders of the muscular triangle?
superior belly of omohyoid
anterior border of sternocleidomastoid
median plane of neck
what does the muscular triangle contain?
viscera of neck, such as thyroid & parathyroid glands
what are the transient nerves of the neck?
vagus & phrenic nerve
What does the vagus nerve accompany on its way to thorax & what triangles can it be found in?
accompanies carotid artery & internal jugular vein
found in carotid & submandibular triangles
Where does the phrenic nerve pass on its way to innervate diaphragm?
along anterior scalene muscle
How many regoins of the vertebral colum and what are they/# of vertebrae in each?
Sacrum (5, fused)
Coccyx (4, fused)
how many normal curves of the vertebral column & what are they?
cervical & lumbar anteriorly convex
thoracic & sacral anteriorly concave
where are intervertebral discs located & what do they permit?
1) between adjacent vertebrae from 2nd cervical (axis) to sacrum
2) permit variou movement & absorb vertical shock
what curves are primary & secondary?
primary: thoracic & sacral form during fetal development
secondary: cervical (when infant raises head @ 4 months
lumbar form when infant sits/begin to walk
What is kyphosis?
(humpback) abnormal thoracic curve
What is a lordosis?
(sway back) anterior rotation of pelvis @ hip joint producing abnormal lumbar curvature
What is scoliosis?
(curved back) abnormal lateral curvature that accompanid by rotation of vertebrae
What forms the spinal canal?
all vertebral foramina together
What creates an intervertebral foramina?
2 vertebral notches (1 superior & 1 inferior)
What is the 1st cervical vertebra known as/ what it does?
atlas, supports skull
What is 2nd cervical vertebra known as/ what it does?
axis, permits side-to-side rotation of head
What is the 7th cervical vertebra known as?
vertebra prominens, has a long spinous process
what are the characteristics of C3-C6 vertebrae?
smaller bodies but larger spinal canals
Transverse processes: shorter w/ transverse foramen for vertebral artey
bifid spinous processes
What are the 2 craniovertebral joints?
Alanto-occipital - between atlas & occipital bone
Atlantoaxial- between atlas & axis
What type of joints are the craniovertebral joints, range ove motion compared to other vertebrae & their articulations?
1) synovial joint
2) wide range compared to other vertebral joints
3) articulate w/ occipital condyles, atlas, & axis
What does the "ring of bone" of atlas have?
superior facets for occipital condyles
what process does the axis have?
Dens or odontoid process is the body of axis
this is a continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament across central atlantoaxial joint trhough foramen magnum to central floor of cranial cavity
What is a hangman's fracture & what are causes?
fracture of both pedicles of vertebra C2
forcible hyperextension of head
Characteristics of thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12)
larger / stronger bodies
longer transverse/ spinous processes
Facets/ demifacets on body for head of rib
Facets of transverse processes (T1-T10) for tubercle of rib
What are the largest / strongest vertebrae & how many are there?
Lumbar vertebrae; 5