4.5 - Soils Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.5 - Soils Deck (14)
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1

What are 3 Characteristics of Tropical Red Latosols?

> Infertile
> Fast nutrient cycle
> Easily eroded

2

Where are Tropical Red Latosols Located?

Five degrees either side of the equator; in the tropical belt

3

What are 3 Characteristics of Podsols?

> Moist; receives high degrees of infiltration and percolation
> Very poor nutrient cycle
> Acidic

4

Where are Podsols Located

> In northern regions with cooler climates
> Zonal soil of the taiga
> Associated with coniferous evergreens

5

What is Soil Classification?

The common zonal system which subdivides the Earth's soils into 3 major categories.

6

Define Zonal Soil

Mature soils reflecting climatic conditions and associated vegetation

7

Define Intrazonal Soil

Reflecting the dominance of other factors, such as the characteristics of the parent rock

8

Define Azonal Soil

Generally immature and skeletal, with poorly developed profiles

9

What is the Profile of a Tropical Red Latosol?

1. Thick litter layer
2. Grey-red quickly formed humus layer
3. Many Active Biota
4. Rapid leaching
5. Build of iron oxides
6. Yellowish lower horizon due to built of silica
7. Parent material

10

What is the Profile of a Podsol?

1. Thin, slowly decaying litter layer
2. Black, thick, mor humus
3. Increasing acidity
4. Bleached, fine central horizon
5. Organic matter atop a hard iron pan
6. Iron stained clays
7. Parent material

11

What Causes a Fast Nutrient Cycle in Tropical Red Latosols?

The year-round growing season leads to a constant shedding of organic matter which, combined with the high humidity, is constantly decomposed

12

What Causes a Slow Nutrient Cycle in Podsols?

Coniferous evergreens don't take up many nutrients and so their slowly decomposing leaves return very little to the soil - hence the mor humus

13

How do Tropical Red Latosols Erode Quickly?

When forests are cleared, the nutrients and protection provided is lost and the soils quickly become exposed to gullying by the constant tropical rain

14

How do Podsols Maintain the Taiga Water Cycle?

The soils are used as a store, with the trees protecting them from freezing winds. Precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration so the trees can move water between the soils and themselves.