Flashcards in 4th Exam - Viral Diseases Deck (113)
Viral affinity for one cell type:
Consequences of viral infection:
no injury, tissue destruction, inflammation, weaken host defense, cell proliferation, neoplasia
Virus that causes tissue destruction:
What causes tissue destruction in Hep B infection?
immune-mediated, not the virus
Infiltration type with viral infections:
Viral infection often leads to:
Case: pregnancy, illness at 7wks gestation, small head, cataracts, heart murmer:
Rubella infection during pregnancy
induce birth defects
Developing fetus, most vulnerable to intrauterine infection during this period:
Is the fetus primarily or secondarily infected in congenital rubella syndrome?
Evidence of active congenital rubella syndrome infection at birth:
none, no inclusion bodies, no inflammation
Main symptoms of baby born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS):
microcephaly, ventricular septal defects, cataracts, microencephaly, deafness
Part of brain most commonly affected in CRS:
Hep B transmission:
Parental route (any body fluids) or as STD
Hep B virus is found here:
blood, body fluids
6 forms of Hep B infection:
subclinical, acute, fulminant (wide spread necrosis of liver), persistent infection, hepatocelllular carcinoma, AI vasculitits (pts w history of Hep B, like pts w PAN)
AI vasculitis connected to Hep B infection is related to this disease:
Pre-icteric phase (HBV)
Anorexia, fever, fatigue
jaundice, hepatomegaly, 90% recovery
TF? HBV is cytolytic.
F. body's immune system goes against its hepatocytes (immune-mediated)
How do a person's cytotoxic T cells kill hepatocytes in HBV?
T cell rec binds cell w both HBcAg (Hep B core antigen: usually indicates person is infectious) and Class 1 MHC, T cell releases perforins, punctures cell membrane, cell dies
Infection type assoc w PMN's:
Indicative of viral lymphocytosis:
Lymphocytic inflammation, Antibody producing B cells, T cells
Smoldering HBV infection with lymphocytic inflammation:
piecemeal necrosis, edges of portal zones chewed up -- cirrhosis --> hepatoma
Arterial lesions of a person w AI vasculitis contain:
HBV, complement, and Ig
What induces the AI response in AI vasculitis?
virus in lesion
Red, generalized, maculopapular rash is assoc w:
Multiple white lesions are assoc w:
Measles, Koplik spots (pathogneumonic finding)
What cell type is assoc w measles:
What precedes measles by 2-3d?
rash, Koplik spots, often on buccal mucosa
Pathoognomic for measles:
What virus causes Hand Foot Mouth Disease?
Coxsackievirus, A16 most often
TF? There is a vaccine for Hand Foot Mouth Disease.
Itchy, maculopapular rash that becomes a vesicular, water-filled, lesion later
Hand Foot Mouth Disease
This disease presents similarly to syphilis:
Hand Foot Mouth Disease
Fever is assoc w:
Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Acute Hep, Mumps, Varicella Zoster, Mono
How is the cell killed in acute Hep?
liver cell membranes are altered
TF? The basement membrane is stimulated to make more PMNs in acute Hep.
F. more lymphos
Cause of lymphocytic inflammation in tissue:
Antibody producing b cells, T cells
Smoldering infection is assoc with:
lymphocytic inflammation, piecemeal necrosis, edges of portal zones chewed up
30% of pts w AI vasculitis/ PAN have this in their blood:
Arterial lesions of AI vasculitis/ PAN contain:
HBV, complement and Ig
enlargement of the parotid gland, tender, painful to palpation is assoc w:
mumps, usually unilateral
TF? Herpes labialis is assoc w fever.
Herpes labialis lays dormant here:
Type 2 herpes simplex infection:
genital, STD assoc w uterine, cervcial inflammation and dysplasia
Assoc w herpetiform rash:
herpes simplex encephalitis (cluster of vesicles)
Describe the 1st and 2nd infection of HSV 1:
1st: subclinical if young, 2nd: recurrent blisters/ vesicular lesions
Assoc w inclusions in ganglion:
HSV 1, Herpes zoster, HPV warts
Viruses that cause vesicular lesions:
HSV 1, herpes zoster, Chx pox, small pox
Blisters are found in this skin layer in HSv 1 infection:
epidermis or mucosa (HPV is epidermis)
Edema of epi cells in HSV infection can lead to:
necrosis, several epidermal cells can fuse together to form mulitnucleated cell
Cell type assoc w HSV infection:
PMNs, like measles
TF? A vaccine is available for Varicella-Zoster.
Varicella-Zoster rash begins here:
Latent Herpes Zoster infection can hide here:
Trigeminal ganglion, posterior root, sensory ganglia esp. (sensory nerves)
Latent Herpes Zoster infection can be reactivated bc of:
lower immunity: HIV, aging, cancer
Assoc w neuropathy of sensory nerves:
TF? Herpes Zoster is most often bilateral.
F. unilateral in one dermatome
necrosis or hemorrhage in ganglia is assoc w:
Herpes Zoster (shingles), band like distribution in dermatome)(
This presents just like Strep throat:
mono, inflammed, cervical nodes
Headache, swollen glands, fever, very tired:
mono, strep throat (check)
Mono is assoc w an increase in this cell type:
PMN and lymphos (62%)
Productive EBV infection:
Ddx of EBV infection:
Leukemia, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's
EBV infects what cell type?
B cells of humans only
Form of EBV that is more typical of U.S. and underdeveloped countries:
U.S.: clinical, underdeveloped: subclinical
Antibody produced by acute mono:
heterophie antibody, nonspecific IgM reacts w sheep or horse RBC's, causes agglutintation
TF? + heterophilic antibody test (+HAT) is diagnostic for mono:
F. highly suggestive
Atypical lymphocytes/ cytotoxic t-cells are aka:
Downey, huge cells, lots of cytoplasm, big, hyperchromomatic nuclei, T cells reacting TO the presence of B cells (recognize as antigen) of the pt that are proliferating
Reactive, non-infected CD+ cells, attach to B cell and try to get rid of them, sensitized to infected B cells, cytotoxic T cells kill the infected B cells, proliferate in ln, spleen or other lymphoid tissue, pseudoneoplastic T cell proliferation. can get large spleen or LN's
What type of virus is HPV?
Tissue layer affected by HPV:
How is HPV spread?
Types of HPV:
1, 2, 4, 7, not every HPV virus causes warts!
Are HPV lesions typically single or multiple?
painless, non-vesicular, waxy, raised gray or brown, may look like tumor, can be in mouth and resemble a tumor
Papilomatosis (projections form ski surface along w too much keratin) is assoc w:
HPV viral genes that enter host genome code for:
E6 and E7, bind p53 and Rbp respectively leading to their degradation
baby born w small head:
zicca virus, rubbela
TF. teratogenic fetal infection in utero often present w active viral inflammation.
F. active organogenesi, though
30% have HBV infection, ab complexes w Ag, vessel damaged, affects muscular arteries in men, produces aneurysms in bvs', esp abdominal arteries
Hand Foot Mouth disease usually lasts
Can you have Ab's to measles in you body and not have clinical symptoms?
TF? Herpes labialis is typically accompanied by fever?
Oral form of herpes is type:
TF? You can get oral herpes on your fingers.
T. dentist wo gloves
How does the herpes virus get to the tongue?
via CNV, can stay in this nerve for a lifetime
Population most likely to be effected by varicella:
Varicella is a ____ rash.
Curse of developed nations:
Which lasts longer, strep or mono?
mono, wks - mos
Strep is a __ infection, mono is a __ infection.
Productive infections cause:
Is latent mono productive or non-productive?
non-poductive, B cells proliferate, lympohomas
TF? A pt must have mono before getting Burkitt's lymphoma.
F, but you can develop Burkitt's from EBV
Is EBV more common in developed or underdeveloped nations?
TF? When we do get exposed to EBV we get mono bc we are in a developed country
Is mono more common in developed or underdeveloped countries?
Subclinical EBV disease is more common here:
underdeveloped countries, not so clean
Clumping of BC's in the heterophilic antibody test indicative of:
Latent, non-productive infection resides here:
LMP-1 binds to:
Tnf-R associated factors
FUnction of TRAF's:
activate TF's (NF-kB)
Function of NF-kB:
enters nucleus to promote cell proliferation
Downey cells are assoc w:
Cells infected w mono have this protein:
latent membrane protein-1, LMP-1 binds to Tnf-R associated factors, TRAF's activate TF's (NF-kB), NF-kB enters nucleus to promote cell proliferation, leas to lymphocytosis
TF? LMP-1 binds to TNF-factors.
F. TNF assoc factors
If a person has a lesion on the body and they touch that lesion, it can spread
Herpes and warts both involve ___ nuclear inclusions.
intra, in skin cells, virial infection
p53 protein causes:
Rb protein causes: