What did the Decree on Press ban?
All non-Bolshevik newspapers
What did the Decree on Political Parties ban?
What did Lenin remove in January 1918?
The Constituent Assembly
The banning of other political parties made Russia a what?
What did Lenin replace courts of law with?
Revolutionary tribunals (that were often brutal and unjust)
What was set up in December 1917?
What was so special about a decree on workers passed by the Bolsheviks in February 1918?
They could force anyone they wanted to do forced labor. If people didn’t work they could be arrested and/or executed as enemies of the revolution
What were the camps ran by Bolsheviks known as?
Who led the Red Terror?
How many people had been executed by the end of the Red Terror?
Between 50,000 and 140,000 people (many of whom were innocent)
Why was the Kronstadt mutiny so important?
It showed Lenin that even the most loyal of followers could turn their backs on the Bolsheviks.
What was the Politburo?
A leading decision-making body within the Bolshevik (Communist) party
When was the Politburo set up?
Who were the original members of the Politburo?
Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev
Why was the Politburo set up?
Some decisions were seen as too important to be debated by the Communist central committee.
What did the 1924 constitution do?
Reorganise land of the Old Russian Empire meaning the Red army could enforce their power over all of Russia.
Who controlled all of the decisions of the All Union Congress of Soviets?
The Communist Party
How did War Communism move away from capitalism?
1) nationalisation of factories
2) banning of private sale of grain
3) abolition of money
Who was the Vesenka?
A Bolshevik group who decided what industrial products to produce and how much should be produced.
What was established that meant that money and private trading was never totally removed?
The black market
How did peasants react to War Communism?
1) they hoarded grain
2) they destroyed grain
3) they grew less and bred fewer animals
What was a consequence of the peasant reaction to War Communism?
Famine (millions died) and in some places; cannibalism
What was set up in place of War Communism?
What does N.E.P stand for ?
New Economic Policy
What greater freedoms did peasants experience under the N.E.P?
Once they had met their quota of grain produced they could sell the surplus (the grain left over).
What happened to factories with under 20 workers under the N.E.P?
They were returned to their owners.
What specific types of factories stayed under Communist control under the N.E.P.?
Coal, Steel and those with over 20 workers.
How did the N.E.P. modernise Russia?
It gave more people electricity as a network of power stations were built after 1921.
Why did many Communist leaders dislike the N.E.P?
They thought it was a step backwards from their Communist philosophy.
Who flourished (did well) as a result of the N.E.P.?
NEPmen (private traders - there were 25,000 in Moscow alone) and Kulaks (wealthier peasants)
What didn’t the N.E.P tackle?
1) Agriculture - this was still primitive
2) Industry - this was still growing slowly
What positives did women experience under the Communists?
1) Paid maternity leave (2 months before and after birth)
2) Legalised abortion
3) New divorce laws made it easier to get a divorce
What positives did youth experience under the Communists?
1) Youth organisations such as Pioneer and komsomol were set up and captured the hearts and minds of many youth.
2) Schools were placed under the Commissariat for Enlightenment - it was compulsory to learn about the history of revolution and Communsim
3) There was more practical education (including trips to power stations, state farms, etc.)
What was the Proletkino?
A special group in place to make political films (such as Oktober)
What was Heroic Realism/Socialist Realism?
A type of art adopted by many artists whereby loyal communists, workers and peasants were pictured as heroes.
Who was in charge of the Commissariat for Enlightenment?
What was the Proletkult?
The culture ‘made by the people, for the people’
What negatives did women experience under the Communists?
1) After the Civil War women were replaced by men in skilled jobs
2) Many pregnant women were divorced in accordance with the new divorce laws
3) Male chauvinism limited women politically
What negatives did education experience under the Communists?
1) The authority of teachers was reduced - homework was banned and they were not able to discipline students
2) Because of the financial pressures of the N.E.P universal schooling was abandoned.