How did Stalin deal with the ‘old Bolsheviks’ when in power?
He organised show trials (trials that took place so the public could watch - these trials were regularly fixed so Stalin’s opponents would lose)
Who were the first ‘Old Bolsheviks’ to go through a show trial?
Kamenev and Zinoviev (they were executed for allegedly plotting to assassinate Stalin)
Who were the last ‘Old Bolsheviks’ to go through a show trial?
Bukharin and Rykov (they were shot for allegedly trying to overthrow Stalin)
How many members of the armed forces did Stalin have killed?
Approximately 30,000, 50% being officers (including leading general Tukhachevsky)
Why did Stalin have so many members of the armed forces killed?
He suspected they were spying for the Germans and Japanese.
What did Stalin allegedly ‘suffer’ from?
A persecution complex - he feared everyone was plotting against him
Who’s death encouraged Stalin to become more active in his purges against Communist Party members?
How did Stalin’s desire to industrialise have an impact on his use of terror?
He believed Russia had to industrialise so international rivals (such as Hitler’s Germany) would not win if a war were to break out.
If workers did not regularly complete enough work what were they accused of?
What happened to the 55 engineers from the Shakhty mines?
They were found guilty of sabotage (5 were shot, 49 were imprisoned)
When did the purges begin?
When did purges become more violent
What were saboteurs also known as?
What were opponents to collectivisation labelled?
What was the secret police known as in this time?
What was the Decree against terrorist attacks?
The NKVD could arrest people without charge or trial and execute them on the spot.
What were the NKVD who were sent out at night known as?
the ‘Black Ravens’
Who was encouraged to inform on others?
How many people were arrested between 1937-38?
Approximately 1 million (around half were shot)
Who was in charge of the NKVD between 1937-38?
What happened to Yezhov?
he was purged when Stalin thought the purges were getting out of hand.
Where were those who were purged (but were not shot) sent?
Gulags (labour camps)
What work were people expected to do in Gulags?
Hard labour (construction and mining projects)
Overall how many died from cold, hunger and ill treatment in Gulags?
Approximately 13 million
By 1938 how many people were in labour camps?
Approximately 7 million
Why did many victims confess to the crimes they did not commit?
Their families and friends were threatened
Why did the NKVD look for a confession of guilt?
It justified their actions/showed the state was right to act in this way.
What had happened to Stalin’s ‘opposition’ by 1938?
There was no credible opponent to challenge him
What was Stalin’s use of terror known as?
The Great Terror