5 How successful was the League in the 1920s? Flashcards
At first glance, would you say the League was successful or not in the 1920s?
At first glance, it would appear that the League was very successful during the 1920s:
- no major conflict or threat to world peace
- many of the League’s agencies and commissions performed useful work
- Germany and all the parts of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire were League members by the end of 1926
Explain the League’s success in the Aaland Islands in 1921
- Dispute concerned the rival claims of Sweden and Finland
- Most of the islanders wanted to be ruled by Sweden
- League investigated matter and awarded the islands to Finland, but with safeguards for the islanders including demilitarisation
- Sweden accepted the judgement
Explain the League’s success in Mosul in 1924
- Turkey claimed the Kurdish-populated province of Mosul, which was part of the British-mandated territory of Iraq
- the League investigate the problem and made an award in favour of Iraq
- Turkey accepted the judgement
Explain how successful the Refugee Organisation’s work was in the League of Nations?
Faced the problem of former World War one prisoners-of-war stranded in Soviet Russia, Poland, France, Germany and Turkey. There was an estimated 250,000 Russians in German or French camps and 300,000 Germans and former Austro-Hungarians in Soviet Russia. Fridtjof Nansen (Norwegian explorer and scientist) was given role to devise a solution. Nansen and his staff worked alongside the Red Cross and helped 425,000 displaced persons either return to their homes or find new homes between 1920-22.
Explain how successful the Health Organisation’s work was in the League of Nations?
This is one of most successful agencies in League, under director, Ludwig Rajchman. It established links with non-member countries such as Germany, Soviet Russia and the USA to provide an information service, technical assistance and advice on public health matters. It helped Soviet Russia prevent a typhus epidemic in Siberia in part by organising a public education campaign on heath and sanitation. It also helped reduce the incidence of leprosy and began an international campaign to exterminate mosquitos, so reducing the spread of malaria and yellow fever.
Explain the League’s failures in Vilna in 1920
Vilna, with a largely Polish population, was made capital of newly created state of Lithuania. A Polish army seized the city in 1920 as a result of which Lithuania made an appeal to the League. The League asked the Polish troops to withdraw while a plebiscite was arranged but Poland refused. The matter was then passed on to the Conference of Ambassadors who awarded Vilna to Poland.
Explain the League’s failures in the Occupation of the Ruhr in 1923
When Germany defaulted on its reparations payment in 1922, the matter should have been referred to the League. Instead France, supported by Belgium, decided to take swift and unilateral action by ordering their troops to occupy the Ruhr in January 1923. This action only served to confirm the impression of many that the League was little more than a victors club for the pursuit of victors’ interests.