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Flashcards in 5.1-5.3 Deck (66)
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1

What is biodiversity?

The variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of different species in that area.

2

What is the purpose of biodiversity?

Biodiversity increases the stability of an ecosystem, maintains a healthy biosphere, and provides direct and indirect economical values to humans.

3

What is extinction?

Extinction occurs when the last member of a species dies.

4

What is Genetic diversity?

The variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population.

5

What is the purpose of Genetic diversity?

Genetic diversity increases the chances that some species will survive during changing environmental conditions or during the outbreak of disease.

6

What is species diversity?

The number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community.

7

What is ecosystem diversity?

The variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere.

8

What are the direct economic values of biodiversity?

Humans depend on plants and animals for food, clothing, energy, and medicine.

Most of the world’s food crops come from just a few species.

Wild species serve as reservoirs of desirable genetic traits that might be needed to improve commercial crop species.

Scientists continue to find new extracts from plants and other organisms that help in the treatment of human diseases.

9

What are the indirect economic values of biodiversity?

Green plants provide oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
Natural processes provide drinking water that is safe for human use.

10

What are the esthetic and scientific values of biodiversity?

There is value in maintaining healthy ecosystems that are beautiful or interesting to study.

11

What are the three types of biodiversity?

Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.

12

What are the direct and indirect values of biodiversity?

Humans depend on plants and animals for food, clothing, energy, and medicine.

Most of the world’s food crops come from just a few species.

Wild species serve as reservoirs of desirable genetic traits that might be needed to improve commercial crop species.

Scientists continue to find new extracts from plants and other organisms that help in the treatment of human diseases.

Green plants provide oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.

Natural processes provide drinking water that is safe for human use.

There is value in maintaining healthy ecosystems that are beautiful or interesting to study.

Biodiversity increases the stability of ecosystems and contributes to the health of the biosphere.

13

Why are some human activities harmful to the biosphere?

Some human activities reduce biodiversity in ecosystems, and current evidence suggests that reduced biodiversity might have serious long-term effects on the biosphere.

14

What is background extinction?

The gradual process of species becoming extinct.

15

What is mass extinction?

An event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time.

16

What is the current high rate of extinctions caused by?

Due to the activities of a single species--Homo sapiens.

17

What are scientists' opinions on background extinctions and mass extinctions?

Scientists are not concerned about the natural process of extinction as much as the increasing rate of extinctions.

18

Why are humans causing most of the extinction?

Humans are changing conditions on Earth faster than new traits can evolve.

19

What are natural resources?

Materials and organisms found in the biosphere.

20

What are some examples of natural resources?

Minerals, fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, plants, animals, soil, clean water, clean air, and solar energy.

21

What is overexploitation?

It is the excessive use of species that have economic value.

22

What is the effect of overexploitation?

It can put species at risk of extinction.

23

What are some of the species that are affected by overexploitation?

Bison, Passenger pigeons, Ocelots, and Rhinoceros.

24

What is habitat loss?

It is the destruction of habitat, such as clearing tropical rainforests.

25

What is the relationship between habitat loss and the biosphere?

Habitat loss has a direct impact on global biodiversity.

26

What is habitat disruption?

When a natural habitat, such as a forest or wetland, is altered so dramatically that it no longer supports the species it originally sustained.
Example: overfishing

27

What are the effects of habitat disruption?

Disruption of habitat can start a chain reaction and affect an entire ecosystem.
Plant and animal populations are destroyed or displaced, leading to a loss of biodiversity.

28

What is habitat fragmentation?

The separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land.

29

What are the problems with habitat fragmentation?

Smaller parcels of land support fewer species.

Reduces the opportunities for individuals in one area to reproduce with individuals from another area.

Decreases genetic diversity

Creates more edges.

30

What are edge effects?

Different environmental conditions experienced at the boundaries of ecosystems.

31

What is an example of edge effect?

When an agricultural field meets a forest.

32

What is pollution?

It changes the composition of air, soil, and water.

33

What is Biological magnification?

It is the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web.

34

What is acid precipitation caused by?

Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid.

35

What is the effect of acid rain?

Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients.

36

What is eutrophication?

It occurs when substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth.

37

What are the effects of eutrophication?

The algae use up the oxygen supply during their rapid growth and after their deaths during the decaying process.
Other organisms in the water suffocate.

38

What are introduced species?

Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat.

39

What is a characteristic of introduced species?

They often reproduce in large numbers because of a lack of predators.

40

Why are introduced species dangerous?

An estimated 40% of the extinctions that have occurred since 1750 are a result of this problem.

41

What are the threats to biodiversity?

Overexploitation, unsustainable use, pollution, invasive species, edge effects, and habitat destruction and disruption in general.

42

How is the current extinction rate different from the background extinction rate?

It is rapid, affects more species, and is mostly caused by humans.

43

How can the decline of a single species affect an entire ecosystem?

This can start a chain reaction that affects all species in the ecosystem by changing the relationships among organisms in the food web

44

How is the consumption rate of natural resources distributed across countries?

Mostly in developed countries(United States and Canada) and less in developing countries.

45

What are nonrenewable resources?

Resources that are found on Earth in limited amounts or those that are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time.

46

What are examples of nonrenewable resources?

Oil, natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy.

47

What are renewable resources?

Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed.

48

What are examples of renewable resources?

Solar energy, agricultural plants, animals, clean water, and clean air.

49

What does Sustainable use mean?

Using resources at a rate at which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere.

50

What are biodiversity hot spots?

Must have at least 1500 endemic vascular plants and have lost 70% of its original habitat.

51

What are endemic species?

Species that are only found in one specific geographic location.

52

What are the functions of corridors between habitat fragments?

Connect smaller parcels of land, allowing organisms to move safely between them
Create a larger piece of land that can sustain a wider variety of species and a wider variety of genetic variation
Can also pass disease and infection between fragments and increase edge effects

53

Why are biodiversity hotspots important?

They contain approximately half of all plant and animal species.

54

What is the correlation between the size of disasters and the time it takes to recover?

The larger the affected area, the longer it takes for the biological community to recover.

55

Ecologists use what two methods to speed recovery time?

Bioremediation and biological augmentation.

56

What is bioremediation?

The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify a polluted area.

57

What is biological augmentation?

Adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem.

58

What are two laws that help protect biodiversity?

The ESA and CITES.

59

What does the ESA stand for?

The United States Endangered Species Act.

60

What is the ESA's purpose?

It was designed to legally protect species that were becoming or in danger of becoming extinct.

61

When was the ESA passed?

In 1973.

62

What does CITES stand for?

It stands for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

63

What is CITES' purpose?

CITES outlawed the trade of endangered species and animal parts.

64

When was CITES signed?

An international treaty, (CITES) was signed in 1975.

65

What are the two classes of natural resources?

Renewable and nonrenewable.

66

What are the methods used to conserve biodiversity?

Sustainable use, laws that protect endangered species, protecting biodiversity hot spots, and building corridors between habitat fragments.