5.1 - Normal Aging and Cognition Flashcards Preview

ECU Cognitive/Linguistic Impairment in Brain-Injured Adults > 5.1 - Normal Aging and Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.1 - Normal Aging and Cognition Deck (79):
1

Number of Adults >60 years old will _______ between 2000-2050.

Double

2

Life expectancy in the US increased to ______ years in 2012.

78.8

3

Life expectancy for females is ______ years; ______ for males.

81.2

76.4

4

Is biological aging tied to chronological aging?

Not absolutely

5

What 4 factors play into normal aging?

Genetics

Neurotransmitters

Hormones

Experience

6

Brain volume and/or weight declines ___% per decade after age ______.

5%

40

7

Shrinkage of grey matter is due to __________,
changes in __________, or loss of ___________.

Neuronal cell death

Dendrite synapses

Synaptic plasticity

8

__________ may decline with age, the __________ deteriorating after age 40.

White matter

Myelin sheath

9

Vasculature aging + increases in BP = ???

Increase risk of stroke

10

What can cause the Vascular Changes seen in Dementias?

(3)

White matter lesions increase with age and are frequently asymptomatic

Strokes

Small Vessel Disease

11

Dopamine levels decline around ___% per decade from early adulthood.

[Neurotransmitter Changes]

10%

12

Changes in __________ play an important role in aging related cognitive decline.

[Neurotransmitter Changes]

Dopaminergic neurotransmission

13

Serotonin and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels ______ with age and are implicated in regulation of ___________ and ________.

[Neurotransmitter Changes]

Decrease

Synaptic plasticity

Neurogenesis

14

Reduction in __________ decline w/age particularly in women in menopause

[Neurotransmitter Changes]

Sex hormones

15

What 3 things does Efficient Cognitive Functioning depend on?

The degree of myelination and integrity of white matter

Density and richness synaptic connections

Specificity of synaptic pruning caused by interactions with the environment

16

What are 6 Protective Factors against Dementia?

Education

Occupational Attainment

Healthy Diet

Antioxidant Supplements

Moderate Alcohol Intake

Regular Exercise

17

What are 6 theories on Theories of Cognitive Aging?

General Slowing

Inhibition Deficit

Region-Specific Neural Aging

Transmission Deficit

Working Memory

Resource Theory

18

What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of General Slowing?

(2)

Speed of executing cognitive operations decreases with aging

Happens regardless of cognitive task

19

What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Inhibition Deficit?

(3)

Aging weakens inhibitory processes that regulate memory and attention impacting other cognitive processes

Older adults activate more irrelevant information than young adults

Older adults suppress less irrelevant information once it is activated, regardless of the type or structure of the irrelevant information

20

What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Region-Specific Neural Aging?

The amount of age-related neurobiological change in specific areas of the brain is linked to patterns of spared and impaired cognitive functions

21

What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Transmission Deficit?

Cognitive functioning depends on how fast and how much priming can be transmitted across the connections linking representational units (nodes) in the language memory system

(Used to explain tip of the tongue phenomenon)

22

What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Working Memory?

Reductions in working memory translate into storage and processing problems that impact comprehension during the aging process

23

What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Resource Theory?

(2)

The human capacity for information processing is limited because of finite pool of resources that are shared simultaneously by other cognitive processes.

Limited resources result in declinations in skills during the aging process

24

What are 2 Frontal lobe Theories of Aging?

Age related changes in cognition are due to vulnerability of frontal lobes to structural and neurochemical changes

Frontal lobe changes with age; i.e. progressive loss of activity in frontal regions thought to play a role in inhibiting the influence of irrelevant material or responses

25

Cognitive functions are variable __________.

Across the lifespan

26

Middle age adults perform more like __________ and those over the age of 60 or 65 are characterized with __________.

Younger adults

Lower scores

27

What is Memory?

“Retention of something over an interval extending beyond its physical
presence”

28

What is memory established through?

(2)

Effortful means (Episodic, declarative)

Little effort (Semantic, procedural)

29

What question should we ask about memory?

Is it a storage problem or a retrieval problem?

30

What 2 areas should we target in memory?

Short Term memory

Major life events

31

What are the 4 types of memory affected by dementia?

Episodic

Semantic

Working

Long term

32

What is Episodic Memory?

Information is stored with mental tags about where, when and how info is picked up

33

When is Episodic Memory believed to decline?

From middle age onwards

34

What are 2 examples of a deficit in Episodic Memory?

Reduced ability to learn and retrieve lists of stimuli

Reduced ability to produce real-life autobiographical memories

35

What is Semantic Memory?

Memory for meanings

36

When does Semantic Memory increase?

When does it decline?

It increases from middle age to young elderly

It declines in the very
elderly

37

What is seen when Semantic Memory declines?

(3)

Slower reaction times

Lower attentional levels

Slower processing speeds

38

What have Imaging Studies found regarding age-related abnormalities?

Recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures in normal aging

39

What are the medial temporal lobe structures crucial for?

Memory

40

What is Working Memory?

(2)

Expansion of STM

A component for manipulating as well as
storing info

41

Is Working Memory slated for permanent storage?

(2)

No

It needs to be worked on

42

What is Working Memory influenced by?

Attention

43

When do substantial changes in Working Memory occur?

(2)

With age

Can be profound in individuals ≥ 70

44

What is Long-Term Memory?

(3)

Permanent storage

Effortful vs Effortless Processing

Encoding vs Storage vs Retrieval

45

When does the ability to produce words decline?

What is seen with decline?

With age

Lexical retrieval failures (words, discourse)

46

Normal aging selectively impairs __________ more than others.

Certain language functions

47

How is knowledge of words and word meaning (semantic knowledge) affected by aging?

(2)

It is not

Semantic knowledge is maintained or improved

48

How is the ability to produce the spoken or written word affected with age?

Deficits are seen

49

Older adults are ______ and __________ in producing names for definitions or pictures.

Slower

Less accurate

50

Older adults produce more ______ references and pronouns.

Ambiguous

51

Speech disfluencies such as __________ and ______ increase with age.

Filled pauses

Hesitations

52

Aging has little effect on the representation of __________.

Semantic knowledge

53

Language comprehension generally spared in old age even when compared to decline in other ___________.

Intellectual abilities

54

How does Aging affect Pragmatic Language?

(1+4)

Declines reported in social aspects of language such as...

- Social appropriateness

- Selection on appropriate topic

- Responding appropriately in conversation

- Maintaining appropriate vocal volume and eye contact

55

What specific aspects of Pragmatic Language are affected in Normal Aging?

(5)

Metaphors

Idioms

Turn-taking

Gestures

Eye gaze

56

What is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?

A general term most commonly used to describe a subtle but measurable memory disorder (Alzheimer’s Association)

57

What stage is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?

A transition stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and the more serious problems caused by Alzheimer's disease (Mayo Clinic)

58

What are the 2 broad subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?

Amnestic MCI

Nonamnestic MCI

59

What is Amnestic MCI?

(2)

Significant memory deficits

Individuals begin to forget important information they previously recalled very easily, such as appointments, conversations or recent events

60

What is Nonamnestic MCI?

(2)

Memory is not significantly affected

Affects thinking skills other than memory such as ability to make sound decisions, judge the time or sequence of steps needed to complete a complex task, or visual perception.

61

What subtype of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has impairments in language, attention and visuospatial skills?

Either type

62

MCI occurs on average in ___-___ per 1000 of people 65 years and older It occurs on average in ____ per 1000 of people 75 years and older.

12-15

54

63

Does MCI affect more men or women?

Women

64

Is there consistent data on the prevalence of MCI?

No

65

Is there a single cause of MCI?

No

66

Is there a single outcome for those with MCI?

No

67

What are 3 progressions that may be seen in MCI?

Remain stable for years

Progress to Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia

Improve over time

68

MCI often arises from a lesser degree of the same types of ___________ seen in forms of dementia.

Brain changes

69

What are 3 Risk Factors for MCI?

Family History

Genetics

Age

70

What are the 4 courses of illness that MCI can take?

Intact cognition

Global impairment

Dementia

Death

71

Is MCI a stable condition?

No

72

Can MCI progress to dementia?

Yes

73

Can MCI continue over time?

Yes

74

Can MCI improve?

Yes

75

Is there a standard criteria for MCI?

No

76

Is MCI related to one specific disorder?

No

77

Subjects with MCI have a high risk for _____________, but even in the long term, a substantial number of subjects do NOT develop dementia.

Alzheimer's Disease

78

A ___________ may be useful to identify subjects with MCI who are at risk for Alzheimer's Disease.

Combination of variables

79

What should MCI be considered?

A syndrome rather than as a disease