Flashcards in 5.1 - Normal Aging and Cognition Deck (79):
Number of Adults >60 years old will _______ between 2000-2050.
Life expectancy in the US increased to ______ years in 2012.
Life expectancy for females is ______ years; ______ for males.
Is biological aging tied to chronological aging?
What 4 factors play into normal aging?
Brain volume and/or weight declines ___% per decade after age ______.
Shrinkage of grey matter is due to __________,
changes in __________, or loss of ___________.
Neuronal cell death
__________ may decline with age, the __________ deteriorating after age 40.
Vasculature aging + increases in BP = ???
Increase risk of stroke
What can cause the Vascular Changes seen in Dementias?
White matter lesions increase with age and are frequently asymptomatic
Small Vessel Disease
Dopamine levels decline around ___% per decade from early adulthood.
Changes in __________ play an important role in aging related cognitive decline.
Serotonin and brain derived neurotrophic factor levels ______ with age and are implicated in regulation of ___________ and ________.
Reduction in __________ decline w/age particularly in women in menopause
What 3 things does Efficient Cognitive Functioning depend on?
The degree of myelination and integrity of white matter
Density and richness synaptic connections
Specificity of synaptic pruning caused by interactions with the environment
What are 6 Protective Factors against Dementia?
Moderate Alcohol Intake
What are 6 theories on Theories of Cognitive Aging?
Region-Specific Neural Aging
What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of General Slowing?
Speed of executing cognitive operations decreases with aging
Happens regardless of cognitive task
What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Inhibition Deficit?
Aging weakens inhibitory processes that regulate memory and attention impacting other cognitive processes
Older adults activate more irrelevant information than young adults
Older adults suppress less irrelevant information once it is activated, regardless of the type or structure of the irrelevant information
What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Region-Specific Neural Aging?
The amount of age-related neurobiological change in specific areas of the brain is linked to patterns of spared and impaired cognitive functions
What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Transmission Deficit?
Cognitive functioning depends on how fast and how much priming can be transmitted across the connections linking representational units (nodes) in the language memory system
(Used to explain tip of the tongue phenomenon)
What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Working Memory?
Reductions in working memory translate into storage and processing problems that impact comprehension during the aging process
What is the Cognitive Aging Theory of Resource Theory?
The human capacity for information processing is limited because of finite pool of resources that are shared simultaneously by other cognitive processes.
Limited resources result in declinations in skills during the aging process
What are 2 Frontal lobe Theories of Aging?
Age related changes in cognition are due to vulnerability of frontal lobes to structural and neurochemical changes
Frontal lobe changes with age; i.e. progressive loss of activity in frontal regions thought to play a role in inhibiting the influence of irrelevant material or responses
Cognitive functions are variable __________.
Across the lifespan
Middle age adults perform more like __________ and those over the age of 60 or 65 are characterized with __________.
What is Memory?
“Retention of something over an interval extending beyond its physical
What is memory established through?
Effortful means (Episodic, declarative)
Little effort (Semantic, procedural)
What question should we ask about memory?
Is it a storage problem or a retrieval problem?
What 2 areas should we target in memory?
Short Term memory
Major life events
What are the 4 types of memory affected by dementia?
What is Episodic Memory?
Information is stored with mental tags about where, when and how info is picked up
When is Episodic Memory believed to decline?
From middle age onwards
What are 2 examples of a deficit in Episodic Memory?
Reduced ability to learn and retrieve lists of stimuli
Reduced ability to produce real-life autobiographical memories
What is Semantic Memory?
Memory for meanings
When does Semantic Memory increase?
When does it decline?
It increases from middle age to young elderly
It declines in the very
What is seen when Semantic Memory declines?
Slower reaction times
Lower attentional levels
Slower processing speeds
What have Imaging Studies found regarding age-related abnormalities?
Recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures in normal aging
What are the medial temporal lobe structures crucial for?
What is Working Memory?
Expansion of STM
A component for manipulating as well as
Is Working Memory slated for permanent storage?
It needs to be worked on
What is Working Memory influenced by?
When do substantial changes in Working Memory occur?
Can be profound in individuals ≥ 70
What is Long-Term Memory?
Effortful vs Effortless Processing
Encoding vs Storage vs Retrieval
When does the ability to produce words decline?
What is seen with decline?
Lexical retrieval failures (words, discourse)
Normal aging selectively impairs __________ more than others.
Certain language functions
How is knowledge of words and word meaning (semantic knowledge) affected by aging?
It is not
Semantic knowledge is maintained or improved
How is the ability to produce the spoken or written word affected with age?
Deficits are seen
Older adults are ______ and __________ in producing names for definitions or pictures.
Older adults produce more ______ references and pronouns.
Speech disfluencies such as __________ and ______ increase with age.
Aging has little effect on the representation of __________.
Language comprehension generally spared in old age even when compared to decline in other ___________.
How does Aging affect Pragmatic Language?
Declines reported in social aspects of language such as...
- Social appropriateness
- Selection on appropriate topic
- Responding appropriately in conversation
- Maintaining appropriate vocal volume and eye contact
What specific aspects of Pragmatic Language are affected in Normal Aging?
What is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?
A general term most commonly used to describe a subtle but measurable memory disorder (Alzheimer’s Association)
What stage is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?
A transition stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and the more serious problems caused by Alzheimer's disease (Mayo Clinic)
What are the 2 broad subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)?
What is Amnestic MCI?
Significant memory deficits
Individuals begin to forget important information they previously recalled very easily, such as appointments, conversations or recent events
What is Nonamnestic MCI?
Memory is not significantly affected
Affects thinking skills other than memory such as ability to make sound decisions, judge the time or sequence of steps needed to complete a complex task, or visual perception.
What subtype of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has impairments in language, attention and visuospatial skills?
MCI occurs on average in ___-___ per 1000 of people 65 years and older It occurs on average in ____ per 1000 of people 75 years and older.
Does MCI affect more men or women?
Is there consistent data on the prevalence of MCI?
Is there a single cause of MCI?
Is there a single outcome for those with MCI?
What are 3 progressions that may be seen in MCI?
Remain stable for years
Progress to Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia
Improve over time
MCI often arises from a lesser degree of the same types of ___________ seen in forms of dementia.
What are 3 Risk Factors for MCI?
What are the 4 courses of illness that MCI can take?
Is MCI a stable condition?
Can MCI progress to dementia?
Can MCI continue over time?
Can MCI improve?
Is there a standard criteria for MCI?
Is MCI related to one specific disorder?
Subjects with MCI have a high risk for _____________, but even in the long term, a substantial number of subjects do NOT develop dementia.
A ___________ may be useful to identify subjects with MCI who are at risk for Alzheimer's Disease.
Combination of variables