5.2—altered states of consciousness: hypnosis, meditation, and disorders of consciousness Flashcards Preview

🚫 PSY100H1: Introduction to Psychology (Winter 2016) with J. Vervaeke > 5.2—altered states of consciousness: hypnosis, meditation, and disorders of consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.2—altered states of consciousness: hypnosis, meditation, and disorders of consciousness Deck (12):
1

Hypnosis

  • hypnosis: a procedure of inducing a heightened state of suggestibility.
  • hypnosis is not a trance, rather, the hypnotist suggests something and the subject is more likely to comply.

2

Hypnosis Suggestions

  • ideomotor suggestions: are related to specific actions that could be performed, such as adopting a specific position.
  • challenge suggestions: indicate actions that are not to be performed, so that the subject appears to lose the ability to perform an action.
  • cognitive-perceptual suggestions: involve a subject remembering or forgetting specific information, or experiencing altered perceptions such as reduced pain sensations.

3

Dissociation Theory | Theories of Hypnosis

  • dissociation theory explains hypnosis as a unique state in which consciousness is divided into two parts: an observer and a hidden observer.
  • you enter a state where you are able to perform actions without using as much executive processing.
  • although this behaviour feels familiar and automatic, there is still a "hidden observer" performing executive functions.

4

Social-Cognitive Theory | Theories of Hypnosis

explains hypnosis by emphasizing the degree to which beliefs and expectations contribute to increased suggestibility.

5

Applications of Hypnosis

  • hypnosis has been known to be most effective when used in conjunction with other medical treatments and therapy.
  • can also be used to treat pain.

6

Meditation

  • meditation is any procedure that involves a shift in consciousness to a state in which an individual is highly focused, aware, and in control of mental processes.
  • can lead being more happy and relaxed.

7

Meditation Techniques

  • focused attention (FA) meditation: the individual focuses his or her attention on a chosen object, such as a point on the wall or a physical sensation like the feeling related to breathing open monitoring. 
  • (OM) meditation: meditators pay attention to the moment-by-moment sensations without focusing on any particular object.

8

Brain Death | Disorder of Conciousness

  • brain death: a condition in which the brain, specifically including the brain stem, no longer functions.
  • individuals who are brain dead have no hope of recovery because the brain stem regions responsible for maintaining basic life functions, like breathing and maintaining the heartbeat, do not function.

9

Coma | Disorders of Conciousness

  • coma: a state marked by a complete loss of consciousness.
  • it is generally due to damage to the brain stem or to widespread damage to both hemispheres of the brain.
  • patients who are in a coma have an absence of both wakefulness and awareness of themselves or their surroundings.
  • typically, patients who survive this stage begin to recover to higher levels of consciousness within 2–4 weeks, although there is no guarantee that the patient will make a full recovery.

10

Persistent Vegetative State | Disorders of Conciousness

  • vegetative state: a state of minimal to no consciousness in which the patient’s eyes may be open, and the individual will develop sleep–wake cycles without clear signs of consciousness.
  • these patients generally do not have damage to the brain stem.
  • they have extensive brain damage to the grey matter and white matter of both hemispheres, leading to impairments of most functions.
  • if a patient emerges from this state within the first few months, he or she could regain some form of consciousness.
  • if symptoms do not improve after three months, the patient is classified as being in a permanent vegetative state; the chances of recovery from that diagnosis decrease sharply.

11

Minimally Conscious State | Disorders of Conciousness

  • a disordered state of consciousness marked by the ability to show some behaviors that suggest at least partial consciousness, even if on an inconsistent basis.
  • a minimally conscious patient must show some awareness of himself or his environment, and be able to reproduce this behavior.

12

Locked-In Syndrome | Disorders of Conciousness

  • locked-in syndrome: a disorder in which the patient is aware and awake but, because of an inability to move his or her body, appears unconscious.
  • this disorder is caused by damage to part of the pons, the region of the brain stem that sticks out like an Adam’s apple.
  • most patients with locked-in syndrome remain paralyzed.

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