9.2 | Understanding Intelligence Flashcards Preview

🚫 PSY100H1: Introduction to Psychology (Winter 2016) with J. Vervaeke > 9.2 | Understanding Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9.2 | Understanding Intelligence Deck (9)
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  • savant: an individual with low mental capacity in most domains but extraordinary abilities in other specific areas such as mathematics, music, and art


Factor Analysis

  • factor analysis: a statistical technique that examines correlations between variables to find clusters of related variables, or “factors"
  • e.g. scores on tests of vocabulary, reading comprehension, and verbal reasoning correlate highly together; these would form a “language ability” factor
  • e.g. scores on algebra, geometry, and calculus questions correlate highly together; these would form a “math ability” factor


Spearman's General Intelligence

  • Spearman hypothesized the existence of a general intelligence factor (abbreviated as “g")
  • believed that "g" represented a person's "mental energy"
  • people with higher "g" scores reflected better job performance, how efficiently we conduct impulses among nerve fibers and across synapses, and for more efficient processing overall


Two-Factor Intelligence Theory

  • Spearman hypothesized a second kind of ability that was specific to each task (i.e., each item on a test)
  • he chose the inspired name “ s” to represent this specific-level, skill-based intelligence


Primary Mental Theory

Louis Thurstone argued that instead of g, intelligence is measured by seven primary mental abilities

  • word fluency (which is the person’s ability to produce language fluently)
  • verbal comprehension
  • numeric abilities
  • spatial visualization
  • memory
  • perceptual speed
  • and reasoning


Hierarchical Model of Intelligence

  • combined Spearman's and Thurstone's theories together
  • g covered intelligence as a whole which breaks down into different sub categories (primary mental theory), which then breaks down into specific instances and applications ("s")


Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

  • triarchic theory of intelligence: a theory that divides intelligence into three distinct types, analytical, practical, and creative
  • analytical intelligence referred to book smarts, the ability to reason logically through a problem and to find solutions
  • practical intelligence refers to street smarts, the ability to find solutions to real-world problems that are encountered in daily life
  • creative intelligence refers to the ability to create new ideas and generate novel solutions to problems


Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

  • multiple intelligences: a model claiming that their are eight (updated to nine) different forms of intelligence, each independent from the others
  • very difficult to research as some factors cannot be reliably and accurately measured


Battle of Sexes

  • no real differences in IQ between the sexes
  • males had more variety i.e. some were at the highest in terms of IQ while others were at the lowest
  • males were better visuospatial abilities
  • females were better at verbal abilities, memory tasks, and the ability to read basic emotions

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