The Weimar Republic and Stresemann Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Weimar Republic and Stresemann Deck (32)
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1
Q

What was the Diktat?

A

This was an agreement made by the winning countries of WW1 to say Germany were the blame of the war and they had to agree to the treaty of Versailles and Germany had no say in the matter

2
Q

When was the treaty of Versailles signed?

A

28th June, 1919

3
Q

Name 5 terms of the treaty of Versailles

A
  • they had to pay reparations of £6600 million
  • they lost their eleven German colonies in Africa and the Far East and they were given as mandates to oh her countries
  • army was limited to 100,000 and could only be used internally
  • navy was limited to 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats, no submarines
  • no Air Force allowed
  • the Rhineland was demilitarised
  • Alsace and Lorraine were lost to France
  • eupen and malmédy were lost to Belgium
  • Posen and west Prussia were lost to Poland and this divided Germany from east Prussia
  • plebiscites took place in other areas to vote to decide whether they should leave Germany
  • the Saar coalfields were given to France for 15years
  • Germany lost 13% of European territory and 50% of its iron and 15% of coal reserves
4
Q

What was Dolchstoss and the effects of it

A

The German people felt as if they had been stabbed in the back because they were never defeated in the war they just gave up and this cause a horrendous effect
The politicians who signed the treaty were called November criminals because they betrayed Germany
It weakened the popularity of the Weimar Republic
It caused lasting political protest
It harmed Germany’s economy

5
Q

What were the terms of the constitution (Weimar Republic)?

A

More democratic the previous government with Kaiser
Power war shared out
Local government was run by eighteen regions of Germany, they kept local parliament
Central government was given more power
The Reichstag was the dominant House of Parliament
Members of the Reichstag were elected every four years
All men and women over 20 could vote
Proportional representation was used, number of seats a political party gained depended on the percentage of votes they had
The Reichsrat could delay new laws u lesser overruled by 2/3 of the Reichstag
The chancellor was the head of government and he ran the country and chose ministers, he could only pass laws with the majority support in the Reichstag
The president was the head of state and was directly elected by the public every 7 years
Takes no part in day to day government
He chose the chancellor and could dismiss the Reichstag, call new elections and assume control of the army
And under article 48 he could suspend the constitution and pass laws by decree

6
Q

When was the Weimar Republic created

A

Feb 1919

7
Q

What was the Occupation of the Ruhr?

A

Germany couldn’t pay enough of the reparations because they were bankrupt and the French retaliated and invaded the Ruhr in Germany and stole a lot of the raw materials, manufactured goods and industrial machinery. German workers want on strike but the French arrested them and brought in their own workers. This increased Germany’s debt, unemployment and shortage of goods.

8
Q

Why did inflation start in Germany

A

They had major shortages of goods and prices of things shot up so people had to pay more money to get what they needed. The government had to print more money because they were only receiving 1/4 of what was required.

9
Q

How did inflation turn to hyper inflation?

A

There was a viscous circle of: the more prices rose, the more money was printed and this made prices rise again. By 1923 prices were at phenomenal heights. In 1919 a loaf of bread cost 1 mark but by 1923 a loaf of bread 200,000 billion marks

10
Q

What were the consequences of hyper-inflation?

A

Everyone suffered from shortages - marks became worthless to other foreign currencies, in 1918 £1 = 20 marks but in 1923 £1 = 20 billion marks and therefore foreign suppliers refused to accept marks as goods
Everyone found it difficult to buy what they needed - many workers were paid twice a day so they could buy hints before prices rose again and people carried money around in baskets an wheelbarrows!
People with savings suffered immensely because it all became worthless

11
Q

What do right wing support

A
Want a stable society
Strong government with powerful leaders
Support capitalism 
Stress the importance of a family unit, law order and traditional values
Nationalist
Examples: fascists and nazis
12
Q

What do left wing support

A

What to change society rapidly
Aims to treat all people as equals
Give political power to workers
Oppose capitalism - abolish private ownership of land or business and put these in the hands of workers
Internationalist - stress cooperation of nations
Examples- socialists and communists

13
Q

What violent political unrest occurred

A

Between 1919-1922 there were 376 political murders, mostly left wing politicians
No right wing murderers were convicted but ten left wings were

14
Q

What was the Spartacist League (a left wing movement)?

A

There were left wing uprising to overthrow the government
In Jan 1919 100,000 communists demonstrated in Berlin and took over key buildings
Chancellor Ebert turned to the Freikorps for help because they were demobilised soldiers who were anti communist
With their help they put down Spartacist uprisings and several thousand communist supporters were arrested or killed, the leaders were also murdered

15
Q

What happened at the Kapp Putsch?

A

1920 5000 right wing supporters marched in Berlin to overthrow the Weimar Republic and bring back the Kaiser. For a while they controlled the city but the government urged people to go on strike
With no workers, gas, electricity, water and transport stopped so Kapp realised he couldn’t govern and fled but was later caught and put in prison

16
Q

How did uprisings calm down?

A

A new chancellor, Stresemann was elected and suffering was reduced and inflation went down

17
Q

When did Stresemann come into power?

A

End of 1923

18
Q

When was the Dawes Plan?

A

1924

19
Q

When was the Young Plan?

A

1929

20
Q

When was the Locarno Pact?

A

1925

21
Q

When was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?

A

Aug 1928

22
Q

What main things did Stresemann do when he was chancellor

A
Changed the currency to the Rentenmark
The Dawes Plan
The Young Plan
The Locarno Pact
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
Rejoined League of Nations
23
Q

What was the Dawes Plan?

A

Annual payments were reduced to an affordable level
American banks would invest in German industry
The French left the Ruhr
Industrial output doubled from 1923-28
Imports and exports increased
Employment went up
Government income from taxation improved

24
Q

What was the Young Plan?

A

Reduced total reparations debt from £6.6billion to £2 billion
Given an extra 59 years to pay reparations
Lower taxes
Released spending power, boosted German industry and employment

25
Q

What was the Locarno Pact

A

A treaty between Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Belgium
Germany agreed agreed to keep its new 1919 border with France and Belgium
Allied troops left the Rhineland
France promised peace with Germany
Powers agreed to open talks about German membership of the League of Nations

26
Q

When did Germany join the League of Nations?

A

September 1926

27
Q

What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?

A

Germany became one of 62 countries to sign the pact - an international agreement in which states promised not to use war to achieve their foreign policy aims

28
Q

When/ how did Stresemann come out of power

A

3rd October 1929 Stresemann had a heart attack and died

This damaged the Weimar Republic and Germany was plunged back into unrest

29
Q

When was the Wall Street crash?

A

October 1929

30
Q

What happened at the Wall Street crash?

A

Share prices began to fall on the Wall Street stock exchange in New York
This meant people’s investments fell in value
People then rushed to sell their shares before their value fell further
On 24th October 13 million shares were sold and this sent prices even lower
Shares worth $20,000 in the morning were worth$1000 by the end of the day
Within a week investors lost $4000 million

31
Q

What were the economic effects of the Wall Street crash?

A

Banks suffered huge losses and people rushed to retrieve their money out the banks and then they had no money left
USA could no longer pay Germany their loans and German industrial output fell and unemployment rose

32
Q

What were the social and political effects of the Wall Street crash?

A

The middle classes lost savings, companies and homes
Workers became unemployed
Taxes rose and unemployment benefits reduced
Coalitions of Brünigs government collapsed in 1930
Weimar Republic decreased in popularity because they weren’t dealing with the situation well
Popularity for extremist parties like nazis increased because the public needed a stronger government