The Weimar Republic and Stresemann Flashcards
What was the Diktat?
This was an agreement made by the winning countries of WW1 to say Germany were the blame of the war and they had to agree to the treaty of Versailles and Germany had no say in the matter
When was the treaty of Versailles signed?
28th June, 1919
Name 5 terms of the treaty of Versailles
- they had to pay reparations of £6600 million
- they lost their eleven German colonies in Africa and the Far East and they were given as mandates to oh her countries
- army was limited to 100,000 and could only be used internally
- navy was limited to 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats, no submarines
- no Air Force allowed
- the Rhineland was demilitarised
- Alsace and Lorraine were lost to France
- eupen and malmédy were lost to Belgium
- Posen and west Prussia were lost to Poland and this divided Germany from east Prussia
- plebiscites took place in other areas to vote to decide whether they should leave Germany
- the Saar coalfields were given to France for 15years
- Germany lost 13% of European territory and 50% of its iron and 15% of coal reserves
What was Dolchstoss and the effects of it
The German people felt as if they had been stabbed in the back because they were never defeated in the war they just gave up and this cause a horrendous effect
The politicians who signed the treaty were called November criminals because they betrayed Germany
It weakened the popularity of the Weimar Republic
It caused lasting political protest
It harmed Germany’s economy
What were the terms of the constitution (Weimar Republic)?
More democratic the previous government with Kaiser
Power war shared out
Local government was run by eighteen regions of Germany, they kept local parliament
Central government was given more power
The Reichstag was the dominant House of Parliament
Members of the Reichstag were elected every four years
All men and women over 20 could vote
Proportional representation was used, number of seats a political party gained depended on the percentage of votes they had
The Reichsrat could delay new laws u lesser overruled by 2/3 of the Reichstag
The chancellor was the head of government and he ran the country and chose ministers, he could only pass laws with the majority support in the Reichstag
The president was the head of state and was directly elected by the public every 7 years
Takes no part in day to day government
He chose the chancellor and could dismiss the Reichstag, call new elections and assume control of the army
And under article 48 he could suspend the constitution and pass laws by decree
When was the Weimar Republic created
What was the Occupation of the Ruhr?
Germany couldn’t pay enough of the reparations because they were bankrupt and the French retaliated and invaded the Ruhr in Germany and stole a lot of the raw materials, manufactured goods and industrial machinery. German workers want on strike but the French arrested them and brought in their own workers. This increased Germany’s debt, unemployment and shortage of goods.
Why did inflation start in Germany
They had major shortages of goods and prices of things shot up so people had to pay more money to get what they needed. The government had to print more money because they were only receiving 1/4 of what was required.
How did inflation turn to hyper inflation?
There was a viscous circle of: the more prices rose, the more money was printed and this made prices rise again. By 1923 prices were at phenomenal heights. In 1919 a loaf of bread cost 1 mark but by 1923 a loaf of bread 200,000 billion marks
What were the consequences of hyper-inflation?
Everyone suffered from shortages - marks became worthless to other foreign currencies, in 1918 £1 = 20 marks but in 1923 £1 = 20 billion marks and therefore foreign suppliers refused to accept marks as goods
Everyone found it difficult to buy what they needed - many workers were paid twice a day so they could buy hints before prices rose again and people carried money around in baskets an wheelbarrows!
People with savings suffered immensely because it all became worthless
What do right wing support
Want a stable society Strong government with powerful leaders Support capitalism Stress the importance of a family unit, law order and traditional values Nationalist Examples: fascists and nazis
What do left wing support
What to change society rapidly
Aims to treat all people as equals
Give political power to workers
Oppose capitalism - abolish private ownership of land or business and put these in the hands of workers
Internationalist - stress cooperation of nations
Examples- socialists and communists
What violent political unrest occurred
Between 1919-1922 there were 376 political murders, mostly left wing politicians
No right wing murderers were convicted but ten left wings were
What was the Spartacist League (a left wing movement)?
There were left wing uprising to overthrow the government
In Jan 1919 100,000 communists demonstrated in Berlin and took over key buildings
Chancellor Ebert turned to the Freikorps for help because they were demobilised soldiers who were anti communist
With their help they put down Spartacist uprisings and several thousand communist supporters were arrested or killed, the leaders were also murdered
What happened at the Kapp Putsch?
1920 5000 right wing supporters marched in Berlin to overthrow the Weimar Republic and bring back the Kaiser. For a while they controlled the city but the government urged people to go on strike
With no workers, gas, electricity, water and transport stopped so Kapp realised he couldn’t govern and fled but was later caught and put in prison