The process by which informaiton is transmitted and understood between two or more people
communication. Emphasis on the word 'understood' because transmitting the sender's intended meaning is the essence of communication.
Functions Communication plays: 1. vehicle through which people clarify their e______ and c_____ work. 2. Central role in o_____ L_____. 3. D_____ m_____ 4. c____ b_____. 5. supports e_____ w_____
1. vehicle through which people clarify their expectations and coordinate work. 2. Central role in organisational learning. 3. Decision making 4. change behaviour. 5. supports employee wellbeing.
Communication process: Communication flows between the s____ and the r_____. 1. sender forms a message and e____ it into words, gestures, voice intonations and other symbols and signs. 2. Receiver senses the incoming message and d____ it into something meaningful. 3. The sender looks for evidence the other person has recieved and understood the t____ message. This is usually by feedback (repeating process). This is all hampered by noise.
Communication flows between the SENDER and the RECIEVER. 1. sender forms a message and ENCODES it into words, gestures, voice intonations and other symbols and signs. 2. Receiver senses the incoming message and DECODES it into something meaningful. 3. The sender looks for evidence the other person has recieved and understood the TRANSMITTED message. This is usually by feedback (repeating process). This is all hampered by noise.
The psychological, social and structural barriers that distort and obscure the sender's intended message
noise can lead to the sender and reciever not having a c___ u____ of the message
This suggests that communication effectiveness depends on the ability of the sender and receiver to efficiently and accurately encode and decode information C_____ P_____ M____.
Communication Process Model
Four main factors that influence the encoding-decoding process: 1. Communication p_____ 2. Similar c_____ 3. Shared m____ m____ of the communication context 4. Experience e____ the message
Four main factors that influence the encoding-decoding process: 1. Communication proficiency 2. Similar codebooks 3. Shared mental models of the communication context 4. Experience encoding the message
This improves when the sender and reciever are both motivated and able to communicate thorugh the selected communication channel. c_____ p_____
These are dictionaries of symbols, language, gestures, idioms and other tools used to convey information. c____
with similar c_____, communication participants are able to encode and decode more accurately, because the both have the same or similar meaning. The is also less need for redundancy or comfirmation feedback.
These are internal representations of the external world that allow us to visualise elements of a setting and relationships among those elements. m___ m___
When sender and receiver have shared m____ m____, they have a common understanding of the environment relating to the information, so less communication is necessary to clarify meaning about the context.
Difference between codebooks and mental models. _____ = symbols used to convey message content. ____ = knowledge structures of the communication setting.
codebooks = symbols used to convey message content. mental models = knowledge structures of the communication setting.
A russian comonaut and a canadian astronaut might have share ______, but less similar _____
A russian comonaut and a canadian astronaut might have share MENTAL MODELS, but less similar CODEBOOKS
Email is a_____ (i.e. messages are sent and received at differen times), so ther eis no need to coordiinate a communication session.
By hiding age, race, and other features, email reduces this s_____ b___
Problems with e-mail: 1. poor medium for communicating e_____ 2. Reduces p_____ and r_____ 3. Poor medium for a_____, c___ and n____ situations. 4. contributes to i____ o____
Problems with e-mail: 1. poor medium for communicating EMOTIONS 2. Reduces POLITENESS and RESPECT 3. Poor medium for AMBIGUOUS, COMPLEX AND NOVEL situations. 4. contributes to INFORMATION OVERLOAD
______ ______ includes facial gestures, voice intonation, physical distance and communication and even silence.
___ ____ communication is necessary where noise and physical distance prevents effective verbal exchanges and the need for immediate feedback procludes written communication.
non-verbal communication is less r___-b____ than verbal communication.
non-verbal communication is less RULE-BASED than verbal communication. non-verbal cues are generally more ambiguous and susceptible to misinterpretation.
____ are hard-wired and universal, therby providing the only reliable means of communicating across cultures.
verbal communication is typically c_____, wherase most non-verbal communication is n___-c____
verbal communication is typically CONCIOUS, wherase most non-verbal communication is NON-CONCIOUS.
Decoding Hidden Messages: Two important messages we convey are about s____ (how we percieve ourselves and others' power), and a_____ (the degree to which we set ourselves apart from others).
Two important messages we convey are about STATUS (how we percieve ourselves and others' power), and AFFILIATION (the degree to which we set ourselves apart from others).
We signal status when we use language that d____ us from others.
We signal status when we use language that DISTANCES us from others.
Using the first person signular pronoun ("I"), the present tense, judgmental adjectives and vocalised pauses. Expressing certainty, correcting other people, telling the other what to do ('should', 'ought'), interrupting others, or changing the topic of conversation also signals g____ p____ and S____
GREATER POWER and STATUS
When we tag questions ("...isn't it), disclaimers ("I'm not really sure, but I think..."), and qualifiers ("possibly") and by making indirect requests we leave the impression of l___ p___ or s___
LITTLE POWER OR STATUS.
The same speech styles convey powerlessness build relationships because they reduce the level of i_____ c____
We can reduce i_____ c_____ and build affiliation by highlighting common goals and values, signalling that we are similar, and engaging in gossip and small talk.
Indication someone might by lying
- blink more rapidly. - give shorter answers to your questions. - more hesitant when they speak - tell less compelling stories. (However we need to know how people behave in normal circumstances).
The automatic process of 'catching' or sharing another person's emotions by mimicking the person's facial expressions and other non-verbal behaviour.
EMOTIONAL CONTAGION - This is non-conscious.