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Flashcards in 6/1 Mixed Deck (26):

The omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct

Normally obliterates during the 7th week of embryonic development
Both enterocysts and Meckel diverticula result from a failure of obliteration involving the omphalomesenteric duct
"The cyst is connected by a fibrous band to the ileum and the umbilicus"


Pulmonary emboli

Typically appear as multiple wedge-shaped hemorrhagic lesions in the periphery of the lung
IV drug users are at risk for developing septic pulmonary emboli as a complication of tricuspid valve endocarditis



Occurs when host proteins such as immunoglobulins or complement bind to foreign cells such as bacteria and coat the surface, enhancing phagocytosis
The most important opsonins (coating proteins) and immunoglobulin G and complement C3b


Ovarian torsion

Typically involves twisting of the INFUNDIBULOPELVIC LIGAMENT, often due to the weight of a large adnexal mass
The resulting occlusion of the blood and nerve supply to the ovary results in severe, acute pelvic pain and ovarian ischemia


Common peroneal nerve injury

Vulnerable to injury where it courses around the neck of the fibula
Fibular neck fractures can injure this nerve, causing weakness of dorsiflexion (deep peroneal nerve) and eversion (superficial personal nerve) of the foot as well as loss of sensation over the dorsum of the foot


Hypersecreting adrencortical tumors

Can have functionality resembling the outer (aldosterone/Conn syndrome), middle (cortisol/Cushing syndrome), or inner (adrogens/hirsutism and virilization) layers of the adrenal cortex
Hyperaldosteronsim: hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis (paresthesias and muscle weakness)


Ovary cell type

Ovary is covered by simple CUBOIDAL epithelium


Complete mole

Usually results when an empty ovum is fertilized by a haploid sperm
Subsequent duplication of the paternal genetic complement (23X) results in the characteristic 46, XX genotype


Hematogenous osteomyelitis

MC in children, usually affects the METAPHYSIS OF LONG BONES due to the slower blood flow and capillary fenestrae in this region; without proper treatment, the infection can progress to chronic suppurative osteomyelitis


Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Small, noncoding form of RNA that contains chemically modified bases (dihydrouridine, ribothymidine, pseudouridine). tRNA has a CCA sequence at its 3' end that is used as a recognition sequence by proteins
The 3' terminal hydroxyl group of the CCA tail serves as the amino acid binding site



Used to treat severe acne with significant scarring
Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication due to the risk of teratogenicity
Sexually active women should be advised to use 2 forms of contraception and take monthly pregnancy tests


Aspirin intoxication

Should be suspected in a patient with the triad of fever, tinnitus, and tachypnea
Adults with ASA toxicity usually present with a mixed respiratory alkalosis and anion gap metabolic acidosis
When the PaCO2 and HCO3 are outside the normal range, a normal pH suggests a mixed acidosis/alkalosis disorder, as compensatory responses do not correct the pH completely


Echinococcus granulosus

Most common cause of hydatid cysts
Spilling of cyst contents can cause anaphylactic shock
Surgical manipulation should be performed with caution



Most common benign tumor of the breast
Characterized histologically by a cellular or myxoid stroma that encircles and sometimes compresses epithelium-lined glandular and cystic spaces


Congential toxoplasmosis

TORCH infection (acquired in utero)
Its classic triad includes hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications and chorioretinitis
Expecting mothers should avoid cat feces to help prevent exposure



Most commonly caused by cystathionine synthase deficiency
Affected individuals have marfanoid habitus, ectopia lentis, developmental delay
Significant morbidity and mortality due to thromboembolism
Many patients with homocystinuria respond dramatically to pyridoxine (vit B6) supplementation


Lymph from the testes

Drains through lymph channels directly back to the para-aortic lymph nodes
In contrasts, lymph from the scrotum drains to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes


Seronegative spondyloarthropathies

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis associated with IBD
Individuals expressing HLA B27 are at increased risk for seronegative spondyloarthropathies


Borderline personality disorder

Persistent pattern of unstable relationships, mood lability, and impulsivity
May exhibit suicidal ideation or behavior in the context of interpersonal crisis in which they feel rejected or abandoned


Brown adipose tissue

Found in newborns and hibernating mammals
Brown adipose cells contain several intracytoplasmic fat droplets and many more mitochondria than white adipose cells
They function to produce heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation with the protein thermogenin


Risk of wrong-site surgery can be reduced by requiring

"dual identifiers" (usually a nurse and physician) to independently confirm that they have the correct patient, site, and procedure
Checks must be truly independent to ensure patient safety


Treatment of psoriasis

Ranges from topical therapies to systemic treatment with conventional and biologic drugs
Topical vitamin D analogs (calcipotriene, calcitriol, tacalcitol) bind to the vitamin D receptor and inhibit keratinocyte proliferation and stimulate keratinocyte differentiation


Dopamine agonists

Chemical structure similar to the NT dopamine and directly stimulate dopamine receptors
2 classes of dopamine agonists are ergot compounds (bromocriptine) and nonergot compounds (pramipexole, ropinirole)


Parkinson disease Rx

Typically treated with levodopa (immediate precursor of dopamine) which cross the BBB. Levodopa is administered with DOPA decarboxylase inhibitors (carbidopa) and sometimes COMT inhibitors (entacapone) to reduce the peripheral metabolism of levodopa, resulting in increased levodopa bioavailability to the brain



Lower TG levels by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-a) which leads to decreased hepatic VLDL production and increased lipoprotein lipase activity


Common peroneal nerve damage

Trauma or sustained pressure to the NECK OF THE FIBULA can cause injury to the common peroneal nerve as it courses superificially and laterally to this structure
Affected patients have weakness in foot dorsiflexion and eversion and impaired sensation over the dorsal foot and lateral shin