6. Neuropathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6. Neuropathology Deck (82)
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61

cajal silver stain picks up what?

neuron cell body and dendritic processes.

62

Luxol fast blue stains what?

myelin

63

astrocytes have what in their intermediate filament that is unique to astrocytes?

GFAP (protein)

64

what are some general indicators that a pathological process may be present?

Alterations within, shape changes of, or variation in number of, the basic cell types in the CNS

65

what is a process in the neurons that indicate pathology?

if they are RED. Red because 02 has been shut off, the 3 Carbon acids build up (ex: lactic acid), cell cytoplasm becomes acidic.

66

what is a process in dendrites that indicates pathology?

dendritic pruning. You wouldn’t pick this up with H and E

67

what is a process in neuronal bodies that indicates pathology?

Central chromatolysis: Nissl has pushed out to periphery, lysed. Something bad has happened to axon and cell body is swelling.

68

what does a lysosomal storage disease process look like?

Large amount of abnormal material in cytoplasm displacing nissl material and nucleus. pink fluffy stuff that the cell can't digest.

69

what are Lewy bodies/what process do they indicate?

gross: lightened substantia nigra due to gliosis where SN should be. indicates Parkinson's. micro: round bodies found in SN.

70

what is proof that someone had rabies?

red inclusions in Purkinje cell nuclei of cerebellum, or pyramidal cells of hippocampus.

71

what are Bunina bodies? where found?

Red, proteinacious aggregates in cytoplasm. Highly suggestive but not proof of ALS. Found in anterior horn.

72

what is segmental degeneration? what does it look like?

myelin broken down, axon not damaged. may be immumo process. slows transmission down axon. cell body not swollen.

73

what general role do astrocytes play?

supportive functions: growth hormones, maintain homeostasis. foot processes around capillaries create BBB

74

Alzheimer's type 2 astrocytes: see in Alz disease? what do they indicate?

not seenin Alz: seen in cases of severe hepatic dysfunction. Nucleus swells to twice size, chromatin is pushed to side. Center becomes clear.

75

what are microglia?

not glia. kind of territorial sensory system, have receptors on their processes

76

microglia have the ability to turn into what?

macrophages. can perform neuronophagia, seen in diseases of CNS. thse were the ones in the movie about damage to CNS by a laser.

77

what type of cell provides the BBB? which part of that cell?

foot processes of the astrocytes.

78

vasogenic edema predominantly affects white or grey matter?

white matter. injury to cerebral blood vessels.

79

vascular permeability/extravasation of proteins in vasogenic v cytotoxic edema?

vasogenic: edema fluid is plasma filtrate including serum proteins. cytotoxic: plasma ultrafiltrate, not proteins.

80

what is the appearance of astrocytes when they have become swollen/reactive/

ground glass appearance of background

81

what is Reye's syndrome?

cause of acute brain edema: acute illness in kids who are given aspirin following resp/viral infection or chickenpox. coma --> death.

82

what 3 cells are either alive or dead, but serve no indication other than that of brain conditions?

oligodentroglia, ependymal, choroid plexus epithelium