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Define urbanisation

Urbanisation is the growth in the percentage of a population living and working in urban areas.


How do urban areas differ from rural areas?

- Larger population in urban.
- Higher density of people and buildings in urban areas.
- The way of life is different e.g. jobs, transport, leisure activities, wealth
- Their economies are different. In urban areas people work in manufacturing and services industries rather than agriculture.


What is the rate of urbanisation

The rate of urbanisation is the growth in the percentage of a population living and working in urban areas over time.


What is the level of urbanisation

The level of urbanisation is the percentage of a population living and working in urban areas.


What is the timeline of urban processes

1. Agglomeration
2. Suburbanisation
3. Commuting
4. Urban regeneration
5. Counter-urbanisation
6. Urban re-imaging
7. Urbanisation of suburbs


What is sub-urbanisation

The outward spread of the urban area, often at lower densities compared with the older parts of a town or city.
- As towns grow, they expand outwards through suburbanisation.
- Adds to built-up area, but building densities lower than in older parts of town.


What is counter urbanisation

The movement of people and businesses (employment) from major cities to smaller towns/cities and rural areas.


What are the main factors affecting urbanisation

1. Pace of economic development
2. Rate of population growth


What is the pace of economic development

It is economic growth that drives urbanisation. When the growth of the secondary and tertiary sectors is fast, so is the rate of urbanisation.


What is the rate of population growth

Economic growth needs an increasing supply of labour. The demand for more workers can be met in two ways; by either natural increase in the urban population or by rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration is usually the more important source of labour. It involves people being attracted to cities by urban job opportunities and services, and by the perception that cities offer a better lifestyle.


How is natural increase calculated

Natural increase = birth rate - death rate


What is migration

Migration is the movement of people from one area to another. Some migration is forced, some voluntary, some permanent and some temporary.


Examples of primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary sector jobs

Primary - fishing, mining, farming
Secondary - manufacturing cars, steel, clothes
Tertiary - teaching, lawyer doctors,
Quaternary - research and development


Definition of primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary sector jobs

Primary - Employment involving the collection of raw materials
Secondary - take the raw materials and process them into manufactured goods and products.
Tertiary - involves the selling of services and skills.
Quaternary - industries providing information services


What is a megacity

A city with a population of over 10 million people


How many megacities are there in the world? And where are most of them located?

35 now - Tokyo, New York, Delhi, shanghai
most located in Asia


What are the main factors affecting the growth of megacities

1. Economic development
2. Population growth
3. Economies of scale
4. Multiplier effect


Explain what is meant by economies of scale

If companies are located close together in one city rather than in a few towns, communication becomes easier and there are financial savings in terms of transport


Explain what is meant by the multiplier effect

If one large city is prospering, it will create momentum in the form of job opportunities, so more people will move into the city, meaning there are more people that need goods and services which creates more jobs and the cycle continues


What problems with housing can rapid urbanisation create

- Mass movement of people from rural to urban areas
- Nowhere to live for low cost so live in informal housing e.g. shanty towns or squatter settlements
- Informal housing is often far from city centre with poor sanitation and supply of clean water as well as poor transportation


What problems with access to water and electricity can rapid urbanisation create

- Often provision of basic services doesn't keep up with growth of population due to high cost and maintenance
- Drinking polluted water leads to illness and informal sewage disposal leads to environmental issues


What problems associated with traffic and congestion can rapid urbanisation create

- As population grows, transport systems become overcrowded and overloaded and is a problem for both rich and poor
- Pollution from a high number of vehicles can cause health issues


What problems associated with health can rapid urbanisation create

- Sometimes not enough doctors or hospitals to deal with rapid increase in population
- Poor living conditions can help diseases like cholera spread quickly


What problems associated with education can rapid urbanisation create

- Lack of schools especially secondary schools, so poverty cycle can continue due to lack of paid employment for skilled labour


What problems associated with employment can rapid urbanisation create

- Many people unable to find work so are unemployed or become part of the mass informal sector that doesn't help to get out of cycle financially
- If there is paid work, then it is often far from shanty towns


What is a land use pattern

A typical pattern that cities follow in terms of how the land is used


What are three main factors that affect the pattern of land use in an urban area

- Locational needs
- Accessibility
- Land value


What factors affect the urban land market

- Locational needs
- Land value


What is the most accessible and expensive part of the city

The CBD (central business district)


What is in the inner city

Housing, offices, non- residential land use eg parks


What are some characteristics of the suburban ring

More dominant residential housing, density of develop decreases


What is in the urban fringe

Edge of countryside met by outward sprawl of built-up area with some housing and retail (huge stores)


What is the order of the zones in a city on the concentric zone model

1. core
2. inner-city ring
3. suburban ring'
4. urban fringe


What general assumptions can be made if a city follows the concentric Burgess model

- The general age of the buildings decreases
- The density of the buildings decreases
- The style and architecture of the buildings changes.


What urban challenges do developed countries face

- Food supply (inequalities)
- Energy supply (sustainability)
- Transport and waste disposal demands
- Concentrated resource consumption
- Segregation
- Urban pollution
- Crime


What urban challenges do developing countries face that developing countries do not

- Urban pollution
- Squatter settlements
- Low quality of life
- Informal economy


What is the rural-urban fringe

The area where the green fields and open spaces of the countryside meet the built-up parts of towns and cities


What are housing estates

- Housing estates are large groups of homes built together as a single development.
- They tend to be fairly uniform in appearance as the houses are built at the same time.
- Most urban-fringe housing estates tend to be quite spacious with each house having a garden, driveway and sometimes a garage too.


What are business parks

- These are areas created by property developers to attract firms needing office accommodation, rather than industrial units.
- The work that occurs at these sites is usually commercial, not industrial.
- These are popular at the rural-urban fringe, where development is cheaper due to lower land costs.
- They are also often located near motorways or main roads for easy access.


What are retail parks

- Large purpose-built superstores, shopping centres located at or just beyond the rural urban fringe.
- Here are often other facilities (e.g. cinemas, bowling alleys) within the shopping centre.
- These developments often serve customers from more than one town or city.


What are industrial estates

- These are areas of modern light industries and service industries with a planned layout and purpose-built road networks.
- Industrial estates are usually located on the edges of, or outside the main residential area of a city, and normally provided with good transportation access, including road and rail.


Why are retail parks, business parks and industrial parks being developed in the rural-urban fringe?

- Land values are cheaper
- Space for large car parks and spacious developments
-There is room for expansion
- Closer to main transport links e.g. motorways and A road for the transport of goods and easy access for customers
- Close to population/customers


What are science parks

- A science park is a strategically planned area devoted to scientific research or the development of science-based or technological industries.


What is a greenbelt

They are rings of heavily protected open land circling an urban area. They aim to protect the surrounding countryside from development, and in some cases stop two large cities from merging.


What is a greenfield site

Sites which have not previously been built on. This includes the greenbelt land around cities.


What is a brownfield site

Sites which are disused or on derelict land.
Are more available in the North and Midlands where de-industrialisation has left sites available for redevelopment BUT most housing demand is in the south-east.