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Flashcards in Christian Beliefs Deck (62)
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1
Q

Why is Christianity a monotheistic religion?

A

It teaches that there is only one God

2
Q

What does atemporal mean?

A

Outside time, meaning He has no beginning or end

3
Q

What does omniscient mean?

A

Knowing everything

4
Q

What does transcendent mean?

A

Existing outside the universe, time, and space

5
Q

What does immanent mean?

A

Involved with the world and human lives

6
Q

What does omnibenevolence mean?

A

All loving

7
Q

What does omnipotent mean?

A

All powerful

8
Q

Why is Jesus described as God incarnate?

A

Incarnate means embodied in human form, and Jesus was God as a human being on Earth

9
Q

Who was Boethius and what did he say about God’s judgement?

A

A sixth century Christian philosopher. He said that humans had free will and could choose freely their path in life, so God is fair and right to punish or reward humans for their actions.

10
Q

What do the Plymouth Brethren believe about God’s nature and how does this influence their actions?

A

God is holy and pure; in order to remove themselves from evil they live, as far as possible, separately from the rest of the world. This includes not voting among other things.

11
Q

What do the Amish believe about God’s nature and how does this influence their actions?

A

Living in accordance with the laws and commands present in the Bible is necessary for salvation, based on teachings like the Parable of the Sheep and Goats. They live in separate communities, separating themselves from the world’s sin.

12
Q

What do Hillsong churches believe about salvation?

A

Salvation does not come from actions as a reward; it comes from God’s grace and is a revelation of His benevolence as a gift. All that is required for salvation is belief and acceptance of this.

13
Q

What do the Free churches believe about God’s nature and how does this influence their actions?

A

They (e.g. Baptist churches) say God is directly accessible by all believers and priests are not necessary as a bridge. God is personal and accessible, shown by Jesus’ teachings, such as telling disciples to pray using the phrase ‘abba’, meaning ‘daddy’.

14
Q

What are the parts of the Holy Trinity?

A

The Father
The Son
The Holy Spirit

15
Q

What is the role of God the Father?

A

Creator of the universe
A loving, parenting figure - ‘abba’
Giving His followers a sense of safety and protection

16
Q

What are the roles of God the Son?

A

Revealing God to people, showing His love and power and teaching them how He wants people to live
Sacrificing himself on the cross to pay for human sin
Rising from the dead to show that God has power over death and is eternal

17
Q

What are the roles of God the Holy Spirit?

A

A constant guide and comforter to Christians
Helping people to live in the way that God requires, understand His teaching, and giving them the promise of life in heaven with God after death
Known as the ‘paraclete’, meaning it works alongside God

18
Q

What denominations reject the Trinity and why?

A

Unitarians, as the Ten Commandments say to have no other Gods. They say it is only possible to believe in one form without being polytheistic.

19
Q

What is the Nicene Creed?

A

A text saying early Christian beliefs from 381CE. It is used by Catholics and Protestants in prayer, and was created in the first ecumenical meeting of Christians

20
Q

What happens in the account of Creation in Genesis 1?

A

God creates the world in six days with the Spirit present. He describes everything as ‘good’ and at the end as ‘very good’. Humans are created in His image, given the responsibility to act as stewards, told to have children, and are blessed.

21
Q

What happens in the account of Creation in Genesis 2?

A

Adam and Eve are created out of dust, with life breathed into them. They are told not to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, lest they face punishment, and are given free will. Eve is created from Adam’s rib

22
Q

What happens in the account of The Fall in Genesis 3?

A

Eve is persuaded by a ‘crafty’ serpent to eat fruit from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and shares some with Adam. This is known as original sin as mankind disobeyed God for the first time, bringing sin into a perfect world. Adam blames Eve and Eve blames the serpent, as a result God sends them out of the Garden of Eden.

23
Q

What is the literal interpretation of the Creation story?

A

The Bible is God’s actual words and the story is an accurate historical account of creation and the Fall. Science is wrong and the world was made in six days. Some say the world is ~5,700 years old. God’s word is infallible, unlike human knowledge, so it must be the absolute truth.

24
Q

What is the idea of the Creation story as a myth?

A

It is not literally true but conveys important truths e.g. the relationship between humans and God and the uniqueness of humans. This is backed up be the differences in style and chronology between Genesis 1 and 2, as well as scientific evidence.

25
Q

What is Theistic Evolution?

A

The belief that God started life and the process of evolution, which has developed into modern life through the theory of natural selection.

26
Q

What is the view of the Creation story being compatible with science?

A

The days in Genesis 1 should not be taken literally, as God’s time is different to ours, so creation potentially took place over billions of years, making it compatible with science.

27
Q

Who was Henry Morris?

A

A prominent supporter of Creationism, specifically young earth Creationism, and a literal Christian.

28
Q

What is natural evil?

A

Suffering creates through no direct fault of humans, e.g. natural disasters

29
Q

What is moral evil?

A

Suffering caused by the actions of human beings e.g. murder

30
Q

What is Mackie’s inconsistent triad?

A

God is omnipotent (has the power to stop evil)
God is omnibenevolent (should want to stop evil)
Evil exists

31
Q

What is the Irenaean theodicy?

A

Also called the soul-making theodicy, it says God deliberately created evil to allow humans to learn and develop spiritually. God would not intervene with human decisions as it would affect free will, and people can learn from making bad decisions.

32
Q

What is the Augustinian theodicy?

A

God’s creation has no evil; evil is just the absence of goodness. This comes about when something good becomes corrupted. The Fall brought this into the world, so human free will caused evil to exist. It means that all humans inherit a sinful nature from original sin, causing evil. Jesus’ death was required as an opportunity for salvation from this.

33
Q

What are modern Christian views on evil and suffering?

A

Conservative Christians: evil is a result of the sinful nature of humans (Augustinian view)
Evil exists as a test
We cannot fully understand God’s motives and purposes so cannot explain them. Suffering is an opportunity to share Jesus’ experiences.

34
Q

What does Messiah used and why is Jesus referred to as one?

A

‘Anointed one’ - Kings were anointed with oil to show they had been chosen by God, so it shows Jesus is a king or lord
The Jews had expected the Messiah, but most thought he would be like the old kings of Israel. His rule was not a military one but a spiritual one.

35
Q

What are the sections of the Sermon on the Mount?

A
The Beatitudes
Jesus and the law
True discipleship
True righteousness
The narrow gateway
Building on solid foundations
36
Q

What are the Beatitudes in the Sermon on the Mount?

A

Blessings, where Jesus describes attitudes or qualities God wants His followers to develop and that He will bless e.g. meekness, mercy and peacefulness

37
Q

What does Jesus and the law mean in the Sermon on the Mount?

A

Jesus’ teaching how believers should understand God’s law, brought by Moses. He says obedience should come from the heart, and that thinking is as bad as actions, as God knows all thoughts e.g. anger and hate is as unacceptable as murder. He also condemns adultery and lust, and tells people to love their enemies.

38
Q

What does true discipleship mean in the Sermon on the Mount?

A

Jesus dismisses outward acts of religion for show and says true discipleship is to be sincere in everything, keeping fasting and charity private, between just them and God. Prayers should be to the point - here he gives the Lord’s Prayer as a template. He says for people to forgive others when asking for forgiveness.

39
Q

What does true righteousness mean in the Sermon on the Mount?

A

Wealth: believers should not buildup wealth or worry about earthly needs, as God will provide for them. True riches are spiritual ‘treasures’ as they cannot be taken. A person cannot worship both God and money
Judging others: nobody is perfect so nobody can judge others except God

40
Q

What does the narrow gateway mean in the Sermon on the Mount?

A

Living as a believer is challenging, as you may face persecution and have to follow God’s laws, compared to the wide pathway of being a non-believer that leads to destruction. This narrow pathway will lead to rewards in heaven, which is eternal.

41
Q

What does building on solid foundations mean in the Sermon on the Mount?

A

Putting the words of the Sermon on the Mount is like a wise man who built on solid foundations - his house will not fall, while ignoring these words is like a foolish man who built on weak foundations - his house will fall.

42
Q

What is Jesus’ example?

A

Spending time with those who society rejected as worthless, showing God’s kingdom is open to everybody
Helping people in need e.g. performing miracles on the sick
Loving God and loving your neighbour
Agape

43
Q

What is agape?

A

Selfless, unconditional, sacrificial love that voluntarily suffers discomfort and even death for the benefit of others, without expecting anything in return

44
Q

What is evangelism?

A

Sharing Jesus’ message and persuading others to become believers

44
Q

What are some different Christian beliefs about Jesus?

A

Liberal Christians may say miracles are just like parables and teach us how Jesus put agape into action rather than literally true
Conservative Christians, especially literal ones, say as God is all-powerful, anything is possible, including a virgin birth and miracles

44
Q

What was the crucifixion?

A

When Jesus was nailed to a wooden cross and left to hang there until death. It is a painful and slow method of death, used to deter criminals, and Jesus suffered the full pain.

44
Q

What was the resurrection?

A

When Jesus rose from the dead three days after his crucifixion

44
Q

What is evidence that Jesus arose after death?

A

Paul says that Jesus was seen alive by 5,000 people afterwards
The four Gospels all say how his tomb was empty when women went to embalm him on Sunday and that he spoke to them

44
Q

What is the ascension?

A

When Jesus rose back up to heaven forty days after his resurrection

44
Q

What is the Apostles’ Creed?

A

A document, first believed to have been written by the twelve apostles, but now thought to have developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries, summing up Christian doctrine

44
Q

What is atonement?

A

Something that makes amends or pays for having done something wrong

44
Q

What was the Day of Atonement?

A

An annual event where animals were sacrificed by priests to pay for human sin

44
Q

What did Paul believe about salvation?

A

It is only possible by God’s grace; no human acts can achieve it on their own

44
Q

What is redemption?

A

God offering to pay humanity’s debt of sin

44
Q

What is necessary for salvation?

A

Saying sorry to God for sins (repentance) and asking for forgiveness

44
Q

What are different Christian views on salvation?

A

Jesus was a sacrifice that paid for human sin
Jesus’ death was a ransom that paid for the release of human sinners
Humans could achieve a union with God through Jesus, allowing them to be saved
Roman Catholics: baptism and belonging to the Church causes salvation
Belief in Jesus will allow salvation
Doing good deeds will cause salvation

44
Q

What is Parousia?

A

The second coming of Jesus

44
Q

What makes human life sacred according to Christians?

A

The presence of a soul

44
Q

What are different Christian views on Hell?

A

A place of indescribable, eternal torture for non-believers
Annihilation - when the body and soul cease to exist
An eternal existence without God’s presence and blessing

44
Q

Why are Christian views on Hell very different?

A

It is hardly mentioned in the Bible

44
Q

What do Christians believe about Heaven?

A

It is a being in the eternal presence of God. This is not necessarily a place but a state of mind, according to some Christians. It is where Christians will be for eternity after death.

44
Q

What is purgatory?

A

The Roman Catholic belief that people who are not pure enough to immediately go to heaven will need to undergo purification to become holy enough - this is called purgatory. People there know they will get to heaven. Prayers can help people there.