Flashcards in 6.6 - Populations and Sustainability Deck (39):
What is population size?
The total number of organisms of one species in habitat.
Explain and label the growth curve.
Slow growth as the initial small number of individuals build up their numbers.
Rapid growth as the number of individuals keep reproducing. Resources are plentiful.
Stable state as the number of resources becomes a limiting factor for population size. There are not enough resources for the whole population. The population then begins to decline. A smaller population means there is less competition for space and food, which is better for growth & reproduction. The population starts to grow again.
What is the carrying capacity?
The maximum stable population size of a species that an ecosystem can support.
What is a population limiting factor?
The factor whose magnitude slows down the rate of a natural process.
What abiotic (non-living) factors affect population size and why?
Abiotic factors, e.g. amount of light, water, space, temperature, chemical composition.
When abiotic factors are ideal a species can grow fast & reproduce successfully & vice versa.
What biotic (living) factors affect population size?
Interspecific competition – competition between different species.
Intraspecific competition – competition within a species.
Predation – predator and prey populations are controlled by negative feedback.
What factors determine the carrying capacity of an ecosystem?
Limiting factors – both biotic & abiotic.
What is negative feedback?
A mechanism that restores the level to normal.
What is the difference between conservation and preservation?
Conservation - active management of ecosystems involving human intervention.
Preservation - protection of ecosystems keeping them exactly as they are.
How do we conserve ecosystems?
Protection – natural resources in them can be used by do not run out.
Management – how resources are used and replaced.
Reclamation – restoring ecosystems that have been damaged or destroyed.
How do we preserve ecosystems?
Banning or restricting humans from an ecosystem.
Limited tourism & scientific research.
No mining or other industrial activities allowed.
What are the economic, social & ethical reasons to conservation?
Social – many ecosystems bring much joy to many people – birdwatching, walking.
Economical – resources drive trade in many countries – timber & tourism.
Ethical – humans should not destroy an ecosystem – conservation is the right thing to do.
Explain and justify sustainable management.
Allows biodiversity to be maintained whilst allowing economic benefits to be derived.
Ensures natural resources will still be available for future generations.
Describe sustainable methods used in woodland ecosystems.
For every tree cut down, a new one is planted in its place.
Trees are cleared in patches as woodland grows back more quickly in small areas between existing woodland.
Timber is often harvested by coppicing – tree trunk is cut close to the ground to encourage new growth.
Suggest measures that an international treaty might impose, to prevent fishing from causing permanent damage to the Southern Ocean.
Fishing quotas, mesh size, species restriction, trawler size/days at sea, penalties, monitoring/surveillance, public education.
Identify the practical difficulties that might prevent measures from being effective. (Protecting the Southern Ocean).
Area too large, expense of monitoring, monitoring hampered by weather, false reporting of catches/trawler size/days at sea.
Death of fish caught but not kept (because of restrictions).
Describe the Terai Arc region.
Area of forest & grassland on the border between Nepal & India.
~ 7 million people live there.
What are the human needs in the Terai Arc?
Clear forest for housing, fuel, growing crops & grazing of livestock.
What animals are present in the Terai Arc forest?
Bengal tiger, Asian elephant + Indian rhino.
What are the issues in the Terai Arc?
Forest destruction brings animals into close contact with humans. Elephants eat & trample crop fields. Tigers kill livestock. Humans likely to then shoot & kill.
What are the solutions to the issues in the Terai Arc?
WWF has provided solar cookers & biogas generators so no need for wood as fuel.
Farmers plant mint hedges around crops to keep animals away.
Describe the Maasai Mara region.
It is a national reserve in Kenya, consisting mostly of grassland.
What are the human needs in the Maasai Mara?
Maasai people earn a living rearing livestock e.g. cattle.
What animals are present on the Maasai Mara grasslands?
Wildebeest, zebra, lions & cheetahs.
What are the issues in the Maasai Mara?
Overgrazing by livestock can destroy grassland for wildlife.
What are the solutions in the Maasai Mara?
Support Maasai people to make money from their land through conservation & ecotourism + encourage sustainable farming methods.
Describe a peat bog ecosystem.
Partially decomposed organic matter created in wetland environments that are acidic & anaerobic.
They are a major carbon sink.
They are an important water store – provides 3⁄4 of our drinking water.
They are home to lots of different plants & animals.
What are the human needs of a peat bog?
Grazing sheep & deer. Gardeners use peat based compost as rich in nutrients.
What are the issues surrounding peat bogs?
Overgrazing leads to loss of moss species & soil compaction – increasing water run-off & erosion.
What are the solutions to peat bog issues?
Farmers given grants to use peat bogs in a sustainable way – lower number of livestock grazing on peat bogs & remove livestock over the winter.
Educating & encouraging gardeners to use peat free compost.
What balance is needed between conservation and human need?
The economic needs of the farmer need to be met to allow the farmer to continue to make a living, whilst also conserving the areas in which they farm.
Describe the Galapagos islands.
Small group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. Many rare species of plants & animals.
What problems have humans caused to the Galapagos Islands?
Non-native animals & plants introduced to the islands. Many native species have been eaten – both plant & animals.
What methods are being used to control human activities in the Galapagos?
Eradication programmes have removed wild goats & wild dogs from some islands.
The world’s southernmost continent. Plants & animals that have adapted to icy conditions.
What problems have humans caused to Antarctica?
Sewage pollution into the sea & leaving rubbish.
Hunting, whaling & fishing all reduced populations.
What methods are being used to control human activities in Antarctica?
All sewage treated before releasing it. All waste taken away by ship. Hunting & whaling have been banned.
Describe the Lake District & Snowdonia National Park.
Areas of hills & lakes in the UK – millions of visitors each year.
What problems have humans caused to UK National Parks?
Erosion of footpaths & loss of soil from hillsides.
Soil ends up in waterways & can disturb the pH.
Walkers trample & destroy vegetation either side of the paths.