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Flashcards in Muslim Beliefs Deck (45)
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1
Q

What is niyyah?

A

The intention of the heart to do an act for Allah

2
Q

What is Shirk?

A

Anything going against the teaching of Tawhid. If you think of anything as equal to Allah, you are guilty of committing shirk. It is the worst of all sins

3
Q

What things could count as shirk?

A

Atheism, the Holy Trinity, polytheism, worshipping idols, non-theism, giving humans divine attributes, showing off

4
Q

What is Greater Shirk?

A

Acts that commit shirk e.g. worshipping another God

5
Q

What is Lesser Shirk?

A

Acts that might lead to committing shirk e.g. wearing a ‘lucky charm’

6
Q

What are the five roots of Usul ad-Din?

A

Belief in Oneness and Unity of God: Al-Tawhid
Belief in Divine Justice: Al-Adl
Belief in Prophethood: Al-Nubuwwah
Belief in Imams: Al-Imamah
Belief in the Day of Resurrection - Al-Ma’ad

7
Q

What are the Imams for Shi’a Muslims?

A

The twelve direct descendants and successors of Mohammed, chosen by Allah. They are infallible and inspired by Allah, who protects them from committing sin. Ali was the first leader, appointed by Mohammed, and every Imam had to confirm their successor. They preserved the religion and interpreted Shari’ah law, explaining any issues that came from it. The first 11 were martyred, while the 12th is waiting to appear at Allah’s appointed time.

8
Q

What caused the split between Sunni and Shi’a Islam?

A

When Mohammed died most Muslims declared Abu Bakr as his successor, and he was called the first Caliph. However, Shi’a Muslims believe that Ali, Mohammed’s cousin, was his true successor and was chosen by him. Ali was later elected as the fourth Caliph.

9
Q

What is Al-Adl?

A

The Shi’a belief that there is objective framework of right and wrong, Allah is perfect and always morally right, humans can work out what is right through reason and should use free will to act in the correct way, at the Day of Judgement Allah will judge people and send the righteous to heaven and the wicked to hell, and that pre-destination does not exist.

10
Q

What is Tawhid?

A

The belief that Allah is the one God: that He alone created the Earth and sustains it

11
Q

What are some key Muslim beliefs about Allah?

A
He is:
Infinite
Omnipotent
Merciful and benevolent
Transcendent and immanent
Fair and just
12
Q

Why do some Sunni Muslims believe that Shi’a Muslims do not fully believe in Tawhid?

A

The Twelve Imams have special characteristics and are often seen as semi-divine

13
Q

What is a rasul?

A

A prophet or messenger, chosen by Allah to teach, guide, and train people to follow Him. They are human and not to be worshipped, but give guidance on how to follow Allah and live in a way that pleases Him. They all have equal status.

14
Q

Why is Mohammed referred to as the Seal of the Prophets?

A

He is the final prophet as the Qur’an still exists in its original form, entirely unchanged, so is the direct word of Allah

15
Q

What are some Holy Books in Islam and which prophets delivered them?

A
Qur'an - Mohammed
Tawrat/Torah - Musa/Moses
Zabur/Psalms - Dawud/David
Injil/Gospel - Isa/Jesus
Suhuf Ibrahim/Scrolls of Abraham - Ibrahim/Abraham
16
Q

Who was Adam?

A

The first man created by Allah and the first Islamic prophet, created in the image of Allah. He was created from dust and life was breathed into him; Allah gave him knowledge and the ability to reason and make choices. He lived with Hawwa (Eve) in Jannah but Iblis (Satan) tempted them to eat from the forbidden tree. They asked for forgiveness, which Allah gave to them, but he sent them to Earth, where He would guide them. All humans are descendants of them.

17
Q

Who was Ibrahim?

A

A prophet born into a polytheistic family - his father was an idol maker - but who rejected idols. Ibrahim told his father and the people of Babylon not to make idols, but they banished him. Allah told him to travel to Egypt with his wife. He is known as the father of the Arab people. Allah tested his faith e.g. by telling him to sacrifice his son Isma’il, which he was prepared to do, stoning Iblis, who told him not to. Rituals at Hajj commemorate him.

18
Q

Who was Isma’il?

A

The son of Ibrahim and an Islamic prophet. Allah made Ibrahim leave him with his mother Hajar at the place where the Kaaba now stands. They only had some dates and water; when the water ran out Hajar ran between two hills seven times to find some. Isma’il then kicked the ground with heel and water appeared (ZamZam spring). Later Ibrahim and Isma’il rebuilt the Kaaba. From Isma’il came the Ishmaelite tribe, to which Mohammed belonged.

19
Q

Who was Musa?

A

He was an Israelite when the Pharaoh ordered the killing of all male Israelite children. Musa’s mother followed Allah’s guidance and put him in a basket on the Nile. It was picked up by the Pharaoh’s family and his wife adopted him. She hired a nanny for him - Musa’s mother. He saw an Egyptian beating an Israelite slave and accidentally killed him when trying to stop him. He fled but Allah told him to return and tell the Pharaoh to release the Israelites. He eventually did, after the sending of the ten plagues. He changed his mind and sent his army after them, but Allah parted the Nile then drowned the army. Musa then led the Israelites and Allah revealed the Tawrat to him.

20
Q

Who was Dawud?

A

A prophet and King of the Israelites, a position given by Allah. He did many heroic acts e.g. killing the giant Goliath. Under Dawud’s reign, Israel prospered and they feared and respected Allah. Allah revealed the Zabur to him.

21
Q

Who was Isa?

A

A prophet who received the Injil (Gospel). He was born to the virgin Mary with no father. Sunni Muslims say he is the Messiah and will return on the Day of Resurrection to bring together Muslims. He will establish Islam and make war until all other religions are destroyed. He performed many miracles and foretold the coming of Mohammed. He did not die; Allah took him into His presence.

22
Q

Who was Mohammed?

A

The last prophet of Allah. His life is an example Muslims follow today, as he demonstrated how to obey Allah.

23
Q

What happened in Mohammed’s early life?

A

He was born in Makkah and was brought up by his uncle as his parents and grandfather died young. He gained a reputation for justice and honesty. He married a wealthy woman he was working for, Khadijah, and they had several children. The Kaaba contained idols and one year needed rebuilding, which Mohammed helped with. They had to put a sacred black stone back in, which each tribal chief wanted to do, but Mohammed did it with the help of them all, so bloodshed was avoided. He became a monotheist, rejecting all Gods but Allah.

24
Q

How was the Qur’an revealed to Mohammed?

A

He was meditating in a cave and an angel appeared, commanding him to read, which he could not. The angel squeezed him tightly, again commanding him to read. He them recited the first verses of the Qur’an by heart. He saw Jibril flying away, declaring him Allah’s messenger. Over time he received the complete Qur’an.

25
Q

What was the Night of Power?

A

The night when Mohammed received the first verses of the Qur’an. It occurred during the last ten nights of Ramadan and is still commemorated during Ramadan. Many Muslims devote themselves to prayer and reading the Qur’an.

26
Q

What is risalah?

A

Prophethood - the ways in which Allah communicates with humans

27
Q

What are the Six Articles of Faith?

A
Tawhid - oneness of Allah
Malaikah - angels
Kutub - holy books
Rasuul - prophets
Akirah - afterlife
Al-Qad'r - predestination
28
Q

What happened in Mohammed’s later life?

A

He began to preach publicly, increasing in followers and people who opposed him. He travelled to Yathrib on invitation of its leaders; this journey is known as the Hijrah. The city was now run on Islamic principles and was renamed Medina. Mohammed taught followers about Islam here. Makkah and Medina fought battles; Medina eventually won and idols were destroyed. Makkah became a Muslim holy city.

29
Q

What is Shari’ah Law?

A

Law developed from the Qur’an, the Sunna, and the Hadith that governs how Muslims should behave

30
Q

What is the Sunna?

A

Records of what Mohammed did

31
Q

What is the Hadith?

A

Records of what Mohammed said (Shi’a Muslims also have the Hadith of Ali, which records what he said)

32
Q

What are Malaikah?

A

Angels, the first thing Allah created. They were made from Nur - divine light - and have no free will. They are immortal and without physical needs, existing to communicate with Allah’s human messengers.

33
Q

Who is Jibril?

A

The chief angel who brought God’s message to Mohammed and all other prophets. He would sometimes take the shape of a man when he appeared

34
Q

Who is Izra’il?

A

The angel of death, responsible for ending everyone’s life by taking their final breath. He separates a human’s soul from their body and brings a sense of dread to a non-believer and a sense of pleasantness to a believer, as he is taking them to Paradise

35
Q

Who is Mika’il?

A

The guardian of heaven who sends rain, thunder and lightning to Earth by the command of God

36
Q

Who is Israfil?

A

The angel of the Last Judgement who will blow the trumpet to announce the Day of Resurrection. The first blast of the trumpet will destroy everything and the second blast will bring every dead human back to life.

37
Q

Who are the honourable scribes?

A

Angels responsible for recording the deeds of humans, both good and bad. Each person has two

38
Q

What is al-Qad’r?

A

The belief that everything that happens is planned by Allah

39
Q

What are different understandings of predestination and free will?

A

Mu’tazilah - predestination does not exist as free will exists
Divine Intercession - God could show mercy to sinners and free them from hell
Shi’a Muslims - Allah knows of everything but may to change anything He wills at any time, so there is partial freewill
Ash’ari School - Allah created everything but humans can ‘acquire’ the act and choose between the right and wrong action

40
Q

When do Sunni Muslims believe you get a soul?

A

120 days after conception. An angel then records their sex, lifetime earnings, and whether they will go to Paradise or hell

40
Q

What is Barzakh?

A

The period of waiting between death and the Day of Judgement. Some say the soul will be given a temporary light or dark body, which reflects actions and therefore judgement, while others say its experience - punishment or reward - will reflect the person’s life

40
Q

How is the Day of Judgement described?

A

Passing over hell in a narrow bridge to reach Paradise. Those who fall from the weight of their bad deeds will remain in hell forever. The two exceptions are warriors who die fighting in the cause of God, who are immediately sent to Allah, and enemies of Islam, who are immediately sentenced to hell.

40
Q

What is Jannah like?

A

A beautiful garden where people are young and happy. It is eternal. People are welcomed by angels. There is no sin. There are eight gates e.g. one is for those who have completed Hajj; Mohammed hoped to be called through all eight

40
Q

What is Jahannam like?

A

It is a place of punishment and eternal suffering. People there are in constant pain, darkness, and fear. For sinful believers it is a place of purification, as Allah will send them to Jannah when he chooses. For unbelievers it is eternal.

40
Q

What is martyrdom?

A

Being killed in defence of or struggle for their faith. Dying in this way will cause the person to enter into the presence of Allah immediately