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Flashcards in Muslim Practices Deck (45)
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1
Q

What are the Five Pillars of Islam?

A
Shahadah - declaration of faith
Salah - prayer
Zakat - tax to the needy
Sawm - fasting
Hajj - pilgrimage
2
Q

What are the furi’al-din?

A

Salah
Zakat
Sawm
Hajj
Khums - annual tax of 20% to help the poor and needy
Jihad - struggle to live the way God wants
Amr-bil-Maroof - commanding what is right
Nahi Anik Munkar - forbidding what is wrong
Tawalla - expressing love to good people
Tabarra - disassociating with those who hate Islam

3
Q

What is Shahadah?

A

Declaration of faith: saying and believing ‘There is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah’.

4
Q

What is Salah?

A

Ritual Muslim prayer carried out five times every day

5
Q

What are the fiver daily Salah prayers?

A
Fajr - morning prayer, between dawn and sunrise
Zuhr - midday prayer
Asr - late afternoon prayer
Maghrib - prayer just after sunset
Isha - night-time prayer
6
Q

What is adhan?

A

The call to prayer

7
Q

What is a minaret?

A

A tall tower on a mosque where the call to prayer is announced

8
Q

What is the muezzin?

A

The person who announces the call to prayer

9
Q

What is the iqamah?

A

The second call to prayer inside the mosque to let worshippers know that prayer is about to begin

10
Q

What is wudu?

A

Ritual washing a Muslim must do before Salah prayer

11
Q

What is the order of wudu?

A
Hands washed
Mouth rinsed out x3
Nose washed x3
Face washed x3
Arms washed
Ears and head washed
Feet washed
12
Q

What is a rak’ah?

A

A complete sequence of prayer

13
Q

What is Jumu’ah prayer?

A

Prayer on Friday instead of Zuhr prayer. Muslims must make every effort to attend

14
Q

What is Ummah?

A

Community in Islam

15
Q

What is qibla?

A

The right direction to pray, towards Makkah

16
Q

What is the mihrab?

A

A semi-circular niche in the wall of the main prayer wall that indicated the direction of Makkah

17
Q

What is a khutbah?

A

A sermon delivered by an imam

18
Q

How is Shi’a prayer different?

A

Zuhr and Asr, as well as Maghrib and Isha prayer can be joined
They prostrate on things considered part of the Earth e.g. wood, especially from Kerbala, a sacred Iraq city

19
Q

What is Du’a prayer?

A

Private prayer

20
Q

What are prayer beads like in Islam?

A

They have either 33 or 99 beads to help recite the 99 names of Allah or to repeat phrases e.g. Allahu Akbar. These phrases are each repeated 33 times.

21
Q

What is Zakat?

A

Giving 2.5% of wealth (above the nisab or threshold) to charity. In Muslim countries it is collected as a tax, while in other countries people give it to mosques and charities. It is distributed to help the needy. It means ‘purification’ and is said to purify greed

22
Q

What is Sadaqah?

A

Voluntary donations to charity on top of Zakat. It shows sincerity to faith and goes beyond money, as Mohammed said ‘every act of goodness is charity’. It is done in secret to prevent pride, as Allah is aware.

23
Q

What is Khums?

A

An obligatory 20% tax on wealth given by Shi’a Muslims. It is used to help the poor and support Muslim organisations; it used to be given to Mohammed’s successors and the Imams and now is given on behalf of the 12th Imam.

24
Q

What is Sawm?

A

Fasting in Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year. Muslims go without food, drink, and sex during daylight hours. There are exemptions if it will endanger a person’s health and for young children.

25
Q

What are the benefits of fasting?

A

Sins are forgiven
Develops self-discipline
Overcomes selfishness
Develops empathy

26
Q

How is fasting broken in Ramadan?

A

With a meal called Iftar: Muslims eat a little and drink water, then Maghrib prayer is performed, then the main meal is eaten. Special prayers called Tareweeh are said.

27
Q

What is Hajj?

A

Pilgrimage to Makkah and to the Kaaba. Muslims are obliged to do it unless are physically unable or cannot afford it

28
Q

What are the origins of Hajj?

A

After the Zamzam spring was created, Allah told Ibrahim to build a monument at the site - the Kaaba. Worshippers then put idols in it, but Mohammed led a group of Muslims there in the first official Hajj, where they destroyed the idols and re-dedicated it to Allah.

29
Q

What is ihram?

A

A state of holiness Muslims are required to be in before beginning on Hajj. They must wash or perform wudu, then put on special clothing (also called ihram), which is made of white cloth to symbolise purity and show humility.

30
Q

What is the Kaaba like?

A

A large cube shaped structure. It was built by Adam and rebuilt by Ibrahim. In one corner is a black stone. Some say Jibril gave it to Ibrahim while others say it is a meteorite sent from heaven. Muslims try to kiss it as they circle the Kaaba. The Kaaba is covered with a black cloth called the al-Kiswah.

31
Q

What is Tawaf?

A

Circling the Kaaba seven times in an anti-clockwise direction

32
Q

What is Sa’y?

A

Running or hurrying between two hills called As-Safa and Al-Marwa. This happens seven times to reenact Hagar’s search for water for Isma’il

33
Q

What is Arafat?

A

A plain near Mina where Muslims face the Kaaba during Hajj from midday to dusk. Pilgrims stand before Allah and plead for forgiveness of sins. Muslims not on Hajj also set this day aside for prayer and fasting.

34
Q

What happens at Mina on Hajj?

A

The stoning of Iblis. There are three walls that symbolise Iblis. Pilgrims throw pebbles of each of them to symbolise rejecting evil and their desire to remain faithful to Allah. It remembers Ibrahim throwing stones to drive away Iblis when he encouraged him not to kill Isma’il.
Pilgrims offer an animal sacrifice to recognising Allah giving Ibrahim a ram to sacrifice instead
Male Muslims have their heads shaved and women will cut a lock of hair to symbolise coming out of ihram

35
Q

What are the benefits of going on Hajj?

A
Greater sense of ummah
Giving them a sense of awe
Relieving the sense of sin
Making people more obedient Muslims
Being commended by Allah
36
Q

What is Id-al-Adha?

A

The festival of sacrifice and the major Muslim festival. Muslims on Hajj and around the world make an animal service. The festival can last up to three days. It remembers when Allah provided a lamb for Ibrahim to sacrifice instead of Isma’il

37
Q

How is Id-ul-Adha celebrated?

A

An animal is selected for sacrifice. In the UK Muslims tend to go to a slaughterhouse and have the animal sacrificed in the traditional Muslim way, as a license is required. At a mosque a khutbar is delivered and prayers are said. Meat is divided up: 1/3 for the family, 1/3 to friends and relatives, and 1/3 to the poor.

38
Q

What are the benefits of Id-al-Adha?

A

Shows willingness to make sacrifices for Allah
Gives an opportunity to be thankful for His provision
Develops ummah

39
Q

What is Id-al-Fitr?

A

The three day festival at the end of Ramadan when the crescent moon is sighted. People attend mosques for Id prayers and a khutbar, which often focusses on caring for the needy. There are celebratory parties - Mohammed called it the Day of Reward.

39
Q

What is sadaqah/zakat al-Fitr?

A

Special charity to atone for mistakes during fasting given before Id-al-Fitr.

39
Q

What is Id-al-Ghadeer?

A

A Shi’a festival to celebrate when Mohammed delivered his last sermon and appointed Ali as his successor (Sunni Muslims say he was calling for him to be respected). Shi’a Muslims take a full bath with specific supplications. They will pray at the mosque and reaffirm commitment to Ali. In Shi’a countries there are often street festivals.

39
Q

What is Ashura?

A

A festival celebrated by Sunni and Shi’a Muslims for different reasons. Mohammed dedicated it to fasting but said it was voluntary. It celebrates when Nuh left the Ark and when Musa was saved from the Egyptians. Shi’a Muslims remember the martyrdom of Hussayn, the third Imam, who was massacred at a battle. Shi’a Muslims have public expressions of mourning of grief, and some may whip and beat themselves, despite being told not to. Some may visit his tomb.

39
Q

What is Jihad?

A

Striving or struggling: it takes two forms - Greater and Lesser Jihad. Greater Jihad is the inner struggle to control bad desires; Lesser Jihad is an outer struggle.

39
Q

What is Greater Jihad?

A

The inner struggle against bad desires, to follow ‘the straight path’, and to please Allah. Overcoming negative qualities like greed comes with the reward of Paradise. It is essential for all Muslims and takes precedence over Lesser Jihad.

39
Q

What is Lesser Jihad?

A

An outward struggle to create a good and fair Muslim society. Some believe it includes war; in these cases there are strict guidelines e.g. it must be fought to bring about good, it cannot harm innocent people, and enemies must be treated with justice.