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Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Consciousness

1

Periodic physiological flucuations

Biological rhythms

2

the biological clock, regular bodily rhythms (for ex. of temp. and wakefullness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle

Circadian rhythm

3

non rapid eye movement, are brief, less emotional and don't contain impressions

Non-REM sleep

4

Rapid eye movement sleep, a reoccurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems stay active

REM Sleep

5

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

Alpha waves

6

Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation (adapted from Dement)

Sleep

7

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

Hallucinations

8

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

Delta Waves

9

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

Insomnia

10

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

Narcolepsy

11

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

Sleep Apnea

12

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified, unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

Night terrors

13

A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagry, discontinuties, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the context and later difficulties remembering it

Dream

14

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

Manifest content

15

According to Freud, the underlaying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve

Latent Content

16

researchers believe this that dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day's experiences in our memory. REM sleep facilitates memory

Informational Processing

17

regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways,

Physiological Function

18

REM sleep triggers impulses that evoke random visual memoriies, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories

Activation-synthesis

19

dream content reflects dreamers cognitive development-their knowledge and understanding

Cognitive thoery

20

Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve"-expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings: contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content- a hidden meaning

Freud's Wish Fulfillment

21

dreams as part of brain maturation and cognitive development

Cognitive development

22

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM cycle)

REM Rebound

23

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

Hypnosis

24

started the modern era of hypnosis

Anton Mesmer

25

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis sessin, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized, used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

Posthypnotic suggestion

26

The subject is so caught up in the hypnotized role that she ignores the odor

Social Influence Theory

27

pioneered hypnotism, distinguished himself through his studies of the role of hypnosis in human behavior and response.

Ernest Hilgard

28

a split consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

Dissociation (divided-consciousness thoery)

29

he discovered hypnosis as a social-cognitive theory and that hypnosis is a special state of consciousness.

Theodore Barber

30

Freud, hypnosis that brings the patient back to an event when they were younger

Age Regression

31

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

Psychoactive Drug

32

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.

Tolerance

33

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

Withdrawal

34

A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

Physical Dependence

35

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

Psychological Dependence

36

compulsive drug craving and use

Addiction

37

drugs, such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates, that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

Depressants

38

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

Barbiturates

39

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin, they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

Opiates

40

drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

Stimulants

41

drugs that stimulate neural activiy, causing speeded up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

Amphetamines

42

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes, over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

methamphetamine

43

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucingen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition

Ecstasy (MDMA)

44

psychedelic "mind-manifesting" drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

Hallucinogens

45

a powerful hallucingen drug, also known as aid

LSD

46

the major ingredient in marijuana, triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

THC

47

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death, often similar to drug induced hallucinations

Near death experience

48

the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

Dualism

49

the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing

monism