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Flashcards in 7 - bonding and structure Deck (101):

Define ionic bond

The electrostatic attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions


What do ionic bonds form between?

A metal and a non-metal


How do you draw dot and cross diagrams for atoms?

Draw a circle for the nucleus and put the symbol of the element inside it

Don't draw any rings

Draw the outer shell without a ring around the nucleus

Draw the electrons as crosses in one atom and as dots around the other element

Put electrons in spin pairs whenever possible


How do you draw ions as dot and cross diagrams and how do you draw their reaction?

Draw the metal nucleus with no electrons on the outside (all been taken)

Put square brackets around it and put the charge as a superscript to the brackets

Draw the non-metal nucleus with the outer electrons of the atom as crosses and the added electrons (from the metal) as dots

Put electrons in spin pairs

Put brackets around the non-metal ion etc. as well

If you need more than one of an ion, but a big number before the brackets


What is the charge of the ions in each of the groups?

Group 1 have +

Group 2 have 2+

Group 13 have 3+ except for boron (a non-metal)

Group 14 doesn't form ions

Only the non-metals in group 15 form 3-

Only the non-metals in group 16 form 2-

Group 17 have -

Group 18 don't form ions because they are noble gases


Define giant ionic lattice

A 3D structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds


What are the 2 main properties of ionic compounds?

Conduct electricity when molten or liquid

High melting and boiling points

Exist as giant ionic lattices


Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity as liquid or molten?

When you melt or boil, you pull apart ionic bonds

Allowing the ions (charged particles) to move and so they can carry a current

As a solid, the ions aren't free to move so current isn't carried


Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?

Very strong electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged ions so a large energy is needed to pull them apart


What effect does the charges of ions have on the ionic bonds?

A bond made by higher charges is harder to overcome

Requires more energy to overcome


What is a polar solvent?

A solvent which has slight negative and positive charges


What is the most common polar solvent?



How are ionic compounds and polar solvents linked?

Ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents


Why do ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents?

The ions of the compound are attracted to the small positive and negative charges of the polar solvent


What are metallic bonds?

Strong electrostatic attractions between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons


What is a giant metallic lattice?

The 3D structure of positive metal ions and delocalised electrons which are bonded by strong metallic bonds


Where do the delocalised electrons in metals come from?

Electrons leave the outer shells of metal atoms so that they are free to move about the structure

The loss of electrons from the metal atoms makes them positive metal ions


What are the 8 properties of metals?

Conduct electricity and heat




High melting and boiling points



Not soluble in water


Why do metals conduct electricity and heat?

The free, delocalised electrons can carry the current through the structure


What do malleable and ductile mean?

Malleable means that it can be compressed without breaking

Ductile means it can be stretched / pulled out without breaking


Why do metals have high melting and boiling points?

The strong metallic bonds require a large amount of energy (and high temperature) to overcome


What does sonorous mean?

It makes a ringing noise when hit


define covalent bond

What is a covalent bond?


When does covalent bonding occur and why?

Reactions between 2 non-metals

So that all atoms have a full outer shell


What are the 2 ways of drawing covalent bonds?

The symbols for the atoms with lines between them to represent a shared pair

Dot and cross diagrams showing shared pairs between bonded atoms


What is a bonded pair?

A pair of electrons which is shared between 2 atoms


What is a lone pair?

An outer shell pair of electrons which is not involved in covalent bonding


What is a multiple covalent bond?

When there are more than 1 shared pairs of electrons between 2 atoms


How are multiple covalent bonds shown in each type of covalent diagram?

Multiple lines between atoms for simple diagram

Multiple shared pairs between atoms on dot and cross diagram


What are dative covalent bonds?

A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of bonding atoms only


What do dative covalent bonds usually form between

A lone pair is shared between its originator and a H+ ion (proton) usually


What is the other word for dative covalent bond?

Coordinate bonds


How do you draw dative covalent bonds in dot and cross diagrams?

Draw the pair as 2 dots or 2 crosses


If there are 2 bonded pairs around a central atom, what shape is formed and what is it called?

A linear shape

The electron pairs go on to the opposite sides of the central atom forming a straight line

The bond angle is 180 degrees


What is the shape called when there are 3 bonded pairs and what does it look like?

The shape is trigonal planar

The 3 bonds are on a flat plane

120 degrees bond angle


What is the shape for 4 pairs?

3D Tetrahedral shape

Bond angle is 109.5 degrees


What is the shape for 6 pairs?

Octahedral shape

Bond angle is 90 degrees


What determines the shape of a molecule?

The electron pairs surrounding a central atom


Why do the electron pairs surrounding a central atom form the shapes they do?

Each electron pair repels other electron pairs

The pairs push apart as much as possible


What is strange about beryllium?

Beryllium forms covalent bonds even though it's a metal

E.g BeCl~2


What is the octet rule?

Covalent bonds form so that there are 8 electrons around each atom (in the outer shell)


In which cases is there not quite 8 electrons and how many outer electrons are there in these cases?


The boron has only 6 electrons


The beryllium only has 4 outer electrons


In which cases is there more than 8 electrons in the outer shell? (Expansion of octet rule)


12 outer electrons to the fluorine


What is the average bond enthalpy?

A measure of the energy needed to break a given bond

unit: kJ mol^-1


When there are 3 bonded pairs and 1 lone pair, what is the 3D shape called?



How do you draw pyramidal molecules?

The same as tetrahedral but you don't draw the bond at the top at all


The same as tetrahedral but you don't draw the bond at the top at all

For each lone pair in a molecule, the bond angle is reduced by 2.5 degrees from the bond angle if all pairs were bonded


What is the bond angle of pyramidal molecules and why?

107 degrees

Because tetrahedral molecules have a bond angle of 109.5 degrees

But there is 1 lone pair in a pyramidal molecule

109.5 - 2.5 = 107

So the bond of angle of pyramidal molecules is 107 degrees


What is the shape called when there are 2 bonded pairs and 2 lone pairs?



What is the bond angle of non-linear molecules?

104.5 degrees

The same as tetrahedral but there are 2 lone pairs

109.5 - 2.5 - 2.5 = 104.5 degrees


How do you draw a non-linear molecule?

Draw it like a trigonal planar molecule without one of the bonds

(Even though non-linear is completely unrelated to trigonal planar)


What is the shape called if there are 4 bonded pairs and 2 lone pairs?

Square planar


What is the bond angle of square planar molecules and why?

If all pairs were bonded, it would be octahedral with bond angle 90 degrees

In square planar molecules, the lone pairs go to opposite sides of the central atom so the bond angle isn't affected by them

The bond angle is still 90 degrees for square planar molecules


How do you draw a square planar molecule?

4 bonds around the central atom each with 90 degrees bond angle


How does a multiple bond affect the bond angles?

Bond angles aren't affected

A double bond is treated as a single bonded pair


How do dative covalent bonds affect shape?

A dative bond is treated as a normal covalent bond

It makes no changes to the bond angle and it is drawn as a normal covalent bond


Define electronegativity

A measure of the attraction of a given bonded atom to a shared pair of electrons in a covalent bond


When is electronegativity at its maximum and why?

When the nucleus is as large as possible (more protons means more positive attraction)

When the number of shells is as small as possible (shared pair is closer to nucleus)


Where is the electronegativity highest on the periodic table?

When the group is highest and when the period is smallest


What is the most electronegative element?



What is the significance of 2 bonded atoms having the same electronegativity?

The molecule of the 2 atoms is non-polar

There are no dipoles


When do 2 atoms have the same electronegativity?

only when they are the same element

Or by chance


What is the Pauling scale?

The scale which measures electronegativity


When is a covalent molecule polar and why?

When the difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms is 0.4 or above, the shared pair of electrons will move closer to the more electronegative atom

This gives the more electronegative atom a delta negative charge and the less electronegative atom a delta positive charge

This is what makes the molecule polar


What are the 3 bond types on the Pauling scale and what are their electronegativity difference values?

Non-polar covalent (less than 0.4 difference between the atoms)

Polar covalent (0.4 to 1.8 difference)

Ionic bonds (1.8 or above)


What is the polarity of a C-H bond? You need to remember this


Unusual as it seems


What happens when a molecule is symmetrical?

The small delta charges are in opposite directions so they all cancel out meaning the molecule is non-polar despite the electronegativity differences


What is a dipole?

A dipole is simply 2 opposite, corresponding delta charges


What happens when the molecule is not symmetrical?

The dipoles aren't symmetrical so the molecule is polar (if the electronegativity difference is greater than 0.4)


How do lone pairs affect the symmetry and polarity?

A lone pair means that the molecule isn't symmetrical so the molecule will be polar


What do we know about polarity if there are lone pairs?

If there are polar bonds, the molecule will be asymmetrical and therefore polar


What are the 3 types of intermolecular force?

Permanent dipole-dipole forces

London forces

Hydrogen bonding


When can permanent dipole-dipole forces occur?

When the molecules that are going to be held together are all polar


Describe how permanent dipole-dipole forces work

The polar molecules have opposite delta charges on each side

The positive deltas of each molecule are attracted to the negative deltas of neighbouring molecules and vice versa


When do London forces occur?

They occur in every substance (between any combination of polar and non-polar molecules)

Only talk about London forces if no other IMFs are present


What will London forces sometimes be called?

INDUCED dipole-dipole forces


Describe how London forces work

Because of the fast movement of electrons around atoms

At an instant, the electrons will be on one side of a molecule more than the other

This gives the "more electrons" area a delta - charge and the opposite side a delta + charge

These instantaneous dipoles induce a matching instantaneous dipole in neighbouring molecules

These matching dipoles cause there to be electrostatic attractions between molecules for an instant

These London forces are constantly breaking and forming between different molecules


When are London forces stronger and why?

When the atoms have more electrons in total because the overall negative charge of the atoms will be greater

The London forces cause LARGER INDUCED DIPOLES


What is a hydrogen bond?

An attraction between a lone pair of electrons and a delta + hydrogen atom


What has to be true for hydrogen bonding to occur?

Hydrogen is bonded to something more electronegative (usually N, O or F)

The other element has to have lone pairs


What is the order of strength of the different IMFs and why?

Hydrogen bonding is strongest due to the greater attraction of lone pairs

Then permanent dipole-dipole forces because the delta attractions are constant

Then London forces are the weakest because the attractions only remain for instants


What are the 4 main properties decided by IMFs between covalent molecules?


Electrical conductivity

Melting point

Boiling point


Why is ice less dense than water?

The hydrogen bonding in ice holds the water molecules apart in a fixed open lattice

They are held apart so ice is less dense


What is the other unusual property of water and why does this happen?

It has higher melting and boiling points because hydrogen bonds are stronger than the other IMFs

So more energy is needed to overcome them


Why do ionic compounds dissolve in water?

Water is polar

So the dipoles of water are attracted to the positive and negative ions in the ionic compound

The water molecules surround the ions so the compound is dissolved


What is the structure of simple covalent substances?

Covalently bonded molecules held together with IMFs


What are the 2 properties of all covalent substances and why?

Low melting and boiling points due to weak IMFs

Don't conduct electricity because there are no charges particles


When do covalent substances dissolve?

Non-polar covalent substances dissolve in non-polar solvents

Polar covalent substances dissolve in polar solvents


What are the 5 giant covalent substances?





Silicon dioxide


What are the melting and boiling points for giant covalent substances?

High because strong covalent bonds need to be broken


What is the strength for giant covalents?

Strong due to strong covalent bonds


What are the 2 properties of only graphite and why?

It is soft because the separate layers of carbon atoms have weak IMFs between them so they can slide over each other

It can conduct electricity because of the delocalised electrons between its layers


What is the structure of graphite?

Each carbon covalently bonded to 3 others

Delocalised electrons between layers


What is the structure of graphene?

A single layer of graphite

Hexagonally arranged atoms

Delocalised electrons above the layer


What is the structure of diamond?

Each carbon bonded to 4 others

Pyramid sort of shape


Which other giant covalent has a similar structure to diamond?

Both silicon and silicon dioxide


What is the conductivity of giant covalents and why?

No charged particles so don't conduct

Except for graphite


What is the solubility like for giant covalents and why?

All insoluble

Because strong covalent bonds need to be broken


What do you have to remember about the polarity of H~2 S?

It doesn't have dipoles


What is the IMF for HCl?

Permanent dipole-dipole forces

You have to remember this


What is interesting about the lone pairs on carbon?

Always no lone pairs