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Where are mast cells found, how are they activated and name some mast cell mediators?

- Found in most mucosal and epithelial tisues e.g GI, skin, respiratory epithelium, connective tissue surrounding blood cells 


- Activated when an allergen binds to IgE bound to FcɛRI receptors


How can we treat type 1 hypersensitivity reactions?


What advice can you give to a patient with a type 1 hypersensitivity?

- Avoid the allergen 

- Be careful of cross reactivity 

- Carry an epipen


What is the definition of autoimmunity and what is the criteria for it?

Immune response against the host due to the loss of immunological tolerance of self antigens


What are some examples of autoimmunity caused by IgG that can be passed from the mother to the fetus?

Will clear up after 6 months


What are three examples of monoclonal antibodies, what is their target and what do they treat?


How do we test for haemolytic anaemia?

Coomb's Test 


What is the clinical presentation of myasthenia gravis, what type of hypersensitivity reaction is it and what autoantibodies are involved?

Type II hypersensitivity 


AchR IgG and Anti MuSK


What is the treatment for myasthenia gravis?



What is the pathophysiology of hameolytic disease of the newborn?

Mother is RhD -ve and baby is +ve


First pregnancy the baby's red blood cells leak out and the mum produces IgM antibodies and becomes sensitised but the IgM cannot cross the placenta


Second pregnancy the mum is sensitised so IgG antibodies produced which can cross the placenta and bind to the RhD in baby, lysing RBCs


How do you treat/prevent hameolytic disease of the newborn?

- Anti-D antibody given to RhD negative mothers during first pregnancy at 28 weeks and within 72 hours of giving birth.


- Causes destruction of fetal red cells that have crossed into mother’s circulation and prevents sensitization.


How is SLE treated?

Patient is immunocompromised as a result of treatment


What are some blood tests for SLE and what autoantibodies are present?

CRP often normal in SLE


What are some blood tests for rheumatoid arthritis and what autoantibodies are present?