Flashcards in 7 Global Governance Deck (86):
What is social globalisation caused by?
What is social globalisation characterised by?
Spread of ideas and information
What is political globalisation caused by?
Western political Influence
Decline of communism
What is political globalisation characterised by?
Diffusion of governmental policies
What is economic globalisation caused by?
What are the characteristics of economic globalisation?
Long distance flows of;
(Rapid advancement since the 90’s)
What was the remittance dilemma in Somalia 2012?
Main source of income for Somalian families was remittance (40% relied)
US and UK banks withdrew service because some money was given to terrorist
In 1954 how much of manufacturing was concentrated in Europe, North America, and Japan?
What has decentralisation/global shift done for LIC’s?
Access to larger markets
more trade agreements
Better global representation
What has decentralisation/global shift done for HIC’s?
Loss of jobs in manufacturing (in UK dropped by 50% from 1980 to 2013
What is a Maquiladora?
Manufacturing operations located in free trade zones in Mexico - can import materials and export products with no trade barriers
How have governments supported globalisation?
Increasing local exports e.g. UK Trade and Investment encourage businesses to export oversees
Less developed countries like Pakistan offer inland dry ports which reduce transport costs, goods are shipped to sea ports like Karachi
What organisations tackle the security issues associated with globalisation?
World Customs Organisation
What is NAFTA?
The North American Free Trade Agreement
What is the EU?
The European Union
What does the WTO do?
Supervise and liberalise trade by reducing barriers. Solves problems with trade and negotiates agreements that become legal grounds.
What was the 1986-1994 Uruguay Round?
Formed by the WTO - reduced barriers for trading manufactured goods
What was the 2001 Doha Development Agenda?
From the WTO - reforms trade in agricultural produce between advanced and developing countries - tariffs could be reduced by 30%.
Reduction could be in subsidies paid to produce farm products and for HIC’s there would be reduced consumption price and fairer prices for NEC farmers.
What are the problems of the WTO?
Western civilisation insisted that in return, large trading nations of NEC’s like Brazil, China and India would open their markets to western manufactured goods.
Emerging nations insisted on larger cuts in farm subsidies and tariffs paid to protect farmers in USA and EU
What are the successes of the WTO?
Ended the trade wars on bananas - bilateral agreement helped by the Doha Agreement
2013, Bali - first multilateral trade in 20 years with the Bali agreement between all 159 members on trade facilitation - to speed up the movement of traded goods and reduce costs by removing red tape in customs procedures
What is a common market?
A group formed by countries in geographical proximity in which trade barriers for goods and services are eliminated
What is a customs union?
A trade bloc which allows free trade with no barriers between members but imposed a common external tariff to trading countries outside of the bloc - like the EU
What are the issues with interdependence (outsourcing, inequalities etc.)?
Countries find it difficult to retain best industries when taken over by higher payed jobs
Increase of skilled workers caused a training gap
Outsourcing of production from high to low wage economies causes unemployment in HIC’s
Increase of labour movement means greater disease pandemics
What is an import license?
License used by a national government authorising the importations of goods from a specific source
What are import quotas?
A set physical limit on the quantity of goods that can be imported into the country
What are subsidies?
Grants awarded to domestic producers that reduce their costs to make them more competitive against imported goods
What are voluntary export restraints?
Diplomatic strategy offered by the exporting country to appease the importing country and deter it from imposing trade barriers
What are trade restrictions?
Import restrictions can be based on technical or regulatory issues such as quality or method of production. E.g. EU attempting to put restrictions on the import of products made via. Child labour.
What are the three main pull factors for FDI?
Large consumer markets
What is the difference between fair trade and free trade?
Fair trade is a social movement to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions and promote sustainability
Free trade is to increase LIC growth as a whole by reducing trade barriers
What is ethical investment?
Where investors make a deliberate choice to invest based on the activities of a firm or organisation - e.g. environmental impacts or the treatment of workers.
What is the TPP?
The Trans-Pacific Partnership which is a free trade agreement between 12 countries; Japan, USA, Australia,, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam.
Has been criticised because negotiations lack transparency.
Sets rules on subjects including investment, patents and copyright, financial regulation, labour and environmental standards.
What is the TTIP?
The transatlantic trade and investment partnership, which is a bilateral agreement to reduce regulatory barriers to trade for big businesses including; food and safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations but has been criticised for its covert nature.
What is the role of China in trade?
Member of the G20 group, which is an international forum for the governments and central banks of 20 major economies, it includes G7 countries and the EU as a single member and was established in 1999, to give a voice to major developing countries.
What is the ‘Group of 77 and China’?
Established in 1964 which aimed to; represent the interest of the world’s poorest countries, help development and reduce poverty, disease and improve human rights.
What is the Mercosur trading bloc for Latin America?
Formed in 1991 and comprises of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela which is a traditional customs union and operates very similar to the EU and allows free movement of labour between member states. Main market is EU and North America
What is the Pacific Alliance trading bloc for Latin America?
Formed in 2011, comprises of Peru, Chile, Columbia and Mexico. It has been open to bilateral agreements with other nations. Main market is Asia Pacific and USA.
What is a special and differential agreement (SDT)?
Allows LIC’s to have special support measures to overcome specific disadvantages when trading
What did the provision of SDT’s do for LICs?
Tackle structural handicaps like; low income, concentration of exports and vulnerability to export price volatility. Engaging in world trade by; providing incentives for export diversification and allowing more stable export revenues. Promoting faster income growth and development.
What where the arguments for LIC’s to have SDT’s?
Developing countries should be allowed flexibility with certain rules, should be allowed freedom to subsidise exports, should have the right to restrict imports to a greater degree, special and different treatment is an acquired political right and developing countries should enjoy privileged access to markets
What were the issues of SDT’s?
Not all countries listed as LIC’s are members of the WTO meaning application can take 8-10 years. Lack of effectiveness due to the fact that LIC’s are not fully aware of them and aren’t productive. HIC’s are concerned that giving trade agreements to HIC’s will result in cheaper products and lack of local industry
What are the characteristics of TNC’s?
Maximizing global economies of scale by organising production to reduce costs, sourcing raw materials or components at the lowest cost, controlling key supplies, control of processing at every stage of production, branding and outsourcing of production.
What is the spatial organisation of Apple?
Headquarters are in California, 3 more data centres in the USA; two in California and one in Carolina, European HQ in Ireland, Assembly in China and retail stores worldwide.
Why is Apple produced in china?
Large source of high skilled, low payed employees. Shenzen is the location of China’s first Special Economic Zone which is dubbed ‘China’s Silicon Valley’ and has allowed Apple to employ 400,000 workers.
What are the impacts of Apple on Ireland?
Employs 4,000 workers, attracted other high-tech firms but a lot of the high skilled workers are from the EU so they haven’t really made jobs for locals
What are the issues with Apple’s labour practices?
From 2009-2010 there were 14 suicides as a result of severe working conditions, employees under 18 being subjected to the same conditions as adults, in 2010 fifty workers were poisoned by a toxic chemical used to clean iPad screens as there was poor ventilation, and in 2006 200,000 were working 60 hours a week for around $100 a month.`
What environmental issues does Apple face?
Reliance on non-renewable resources for electricity, use of toxic chemicals such as PVS and brominated flame retardants in their manufacturing processes, factories in China discharging pollutants and toxic metals into local water supplies and the lack of recyclability in the products.
What were the trade wars?
Lasted 20 years from 1992 to 2009 until the Geneva Banana Agreement was reached. Started in 1975 when the EU countries negotiated a trade agreement with former European colonies - the Lomé Convention with 71 African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, which gave them tariff free import to supply EU markets. This agreement was extended to banana suppliers such as; Cameroon, Jamaica, Ghana etc. This was done to protect smaller family-run farms in the Caribbean and Africa from larger Latin American banana exporters. At the time the Latin American crop were supplying 75% of the EU market, while only 7% was from Caribbean suppliers. But in 1992 TNC’s complained to the WTO and the EU, but the EU refused to satisfy the larger producers which lead to a trade war between the USA and the EU which lead to the US creating sanctions on EU products. Geneva Banana Agreement was to gradually reduce tariffs for Latin American countries.
What is the race to the bottom?
Because of the low prices pain to suppliers by supermarkets, many of the larger companies are relocating their plantations to West Africa, as there is lower labour costs from a weaker legislation.
What are fair trade/organic bananas?
They help smaller scale producers in the Caribbean and Africa and will partially counter the deterioration of conditions in banana production.
What are the benefits of free trade?
Lower prices for consumers, better choice, access to larger wealthy markets for TNC’s, greater economies of scale through increased specialisation, greater foreign competition can weaken domestic monopolies like UK supermarkets, competition leads to greater innovation and access to cheaper raw materials for TNC’s.
What are the costs of free trade?
The injustice of free trade not giving sufficient protection to emerging industries in developing economies, so they cannot compete with developed countries. More developed countries are still protected by tariffs and agricultural imports. The unjust exploitation of workers and poor working conditions. Diseconomies of scale as a result of difficulties co-ordinating subsidiary companies.
What is the risk of economic interdependence?
A negative economic shock in one country can quickly spread to other countries - especially when it’s a banking system e.g. the financial crisis in east Asia in the 1990’s which was triggered by the collapse of Japanese banks.
What do International Development agencies do?
They are organisations that take responsibility for promoting growth, stability and the development of all regions sustainably; both economically and environmentally.
What is a non-governmental organisation (NGO)?
Any non-profit, voluntary citizens group with a common interest, which is organised on a local, national or international scale.
What are the united nations?
An international organisation founded in 1945, made up of 193 member states whose aim is to promote international peace and co-operation.
What is the United Nations Development Programme?
Aims to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, it operates in over 170 countries and the main work has been to lead the drive in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (which was 8 anti-poverty goals which were set in September 2005 and was aimed to be met by 2015). Now in the process of defining Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to strengthen post-2015 frameworks for: development, disaster risk reduction, climate change and global sustainable development.
What are the different roles of NGO’s?
Protection (providing relief to victims of disaster and assisting the poor) - Give a man a fish
Prevention (reducing vulnerability through income diversification and savings) - Teach a man to fish
Promotion (increasing chances and opportunities) - Organise a fisherman’s co-operation
Transformation (redressing social, political and economic exclusion) - Protecting Fishing Rights
What is the World Summit on Sustainable Development?
The Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, was important for setting out Agenda 21 to make long term strategies for sustainable development. Ten years later the WSSD was made to focus on direct action towards challenges, including; improving lives, conserving natural resources whilst keeping on top of the growing demands for food, shelter, sanitation, energy, health and economic security.
What is Agenda 21?
At the Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, 1992, Agenda 21 was a global blueprint for sustainable development. Agenda 21 encourages more sustainable individual lifestyles by using strategies. Uses a top down approach to encourage a bottom up response as the ideas filter down from the UN, to national government, to local government in order to influence actions of individuals. An example of this is local authorities in the UK having a Local Agenda 21 where recycling options are part of waste collection.
Why do some not approve of Agenda 21?
Has an attack on personal liberties like family size and car usage. Has a focus on population control from encouraging population sustainability. Has an attack on the idea of private property.
What is the United Nations Environment Programme?
The body responsible for supporting a coherent structure of international environmental governance. They have been leading global environmental authority since 1972, and now work as part of the UN system-wide preparations for the post-2015 UN Development Agenda - the Sustainable Development Goals.
What are the world summits on climate change?
The atmosphere counts as a global common, the United Nations, Framework Convention on Climate Change is responsible for overseeing negotiations on reducing GHG emissions. At the UN Paris Climate Summit in December 2015, a legislation was made to come into force in 2020, to hold global temperature rises to a maximum of 1.5°C.
What are the key features of the UN Paris Climate Summit?
All countries voluntarily cut emissions, long-term aim to reduce emissions to zero in the second half of the twenty-first century, HIC’s and wealthy NIC’s pledge $100 billion each year to help developing countries adapt to climate change, increasing pledges every five years if they fail to keep warming below 2°C and addressing losses that vulnerable countries face from climate change such as rising sea levels and storm intensity.
What are the aims of NGO’s?
Democratise decision making, protect human rights and provide essential services to the neediest.
What is the difference between an operational NGO and an advocacy NGO?
Operational - provides frontline support services to the needy (e.g. Oxfam)
Advocacy - focuses on campaigns to raise awareness to gain support for a cause (e.g. Friends of the Earth)
What is the principle of the common heritage of mankind?
That some localities belong to all humanity and that the resources there available to everyone. Includes sustainable sourcing.
What is the tragedy of the commons?
A concept that explains why we can’t have shared resources due to over exploitation. People act out of own self interest and the shared resource will deplete. This is what has happened to fish stocks. Therefore, global governance needs to prevent the over exploitation of global commons.
What is the Antarctic Convergence Zone?
A curve encircling Antarctica where cold, northward flowing water from the Antarctic, meets the warmer waters of sub-Antarctic. 32-48km wide, separates; the two distinct hydrological regions, areas of distinct climate and areas of distinct wildlife.
What is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?
From the Antarctic Convergence Zone; gives the largest surface current in the world. Flows around Antarctica and blocks warmer waters from travelling southwards. Flows eastward from a westerly wind.
What is the physical geography of Antarctica?
97% covered by glacial ice. East and west divided by Transantarctic mountains. East is larger, older and thicker. Ellsworth Mountains in west have the continents highest peak - mount Vinson
What are the climatic features of Antarctica?
Average temperature -49°C but can be as low as -89°C.
Wind speed of 50mph from Katabatic winds, gales can reach 200mph
Mean annual precipitation is low <50mm/year
Peaks called nunataks are rock without ice
Why is sealing a threat to Antarctica?
1800’s - fur seal wiped out in South Georgia and the South Shetland Islands. Within 3 years <300,000 seals had been killed and the population was virtually eradicated
Why is fishing and whaling a problem?
Fishing and whaling - 19th century, targets were blue and white whales, whaling stations established in South Georgia and the South Shetlands. Establishment of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in 1946 lead to the end of most whaling in 1985 because of low stocks. In 1994 the IWC established the Southern Ocean whale sanctuary, 50 million kilometres² around Antarctica.
How is climate change impacting the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet and Antarctic Peninsula?
Peninsula is sensitive to rises in temperature and has increased by 1°C since 1955, which raises the ocean temperature from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which results in;
Penguin colony distribution changing
Melting of snow/ice increasing plant colonisation
Decline in krill
Glaciers and ice shelfs retreating
Sea level rise from broken ice shelfs
How is climate change impacting East Antarctica and sea ice expansion?
No loss of ice, sea ice is expanding towards Indian and Pacific oceans, in 2013 the extent of sea ice was at an all-time record of 20 million square km. Reasons why climate change contributes to sea ice expansion is;
Increasing westerly winds around the Southern Ocean caused by climate change driving the seas northward
More rain and snow from climate change layering the Southern Ocean with a cooler denser layer on top
Storms freshening the local water (less salt) raising the temperature needed for sea ice to form
Increased melting of continental land ice creates more icebergs - contributes to sea ice formation
Why do some believe that tourism isn’t an issue?
Guidelines are widely accepted, Damage to vegetation is from natural causes, No litter is from tourists - most is from researchers, no stress is caused to penguins, seals are indifferent to human presence, and out of 200 landing sites, only 5% were slightly damaged.
What is the Madrid Protocol of 1991?
Antarctica is a natural reserve for peace and science, environmental principle for all activities, prohibits mining, all activities must be assessed for environmental impact, rules and liability for environmental damage, and waste must be returned to country of origin
What is the International Whaling Commission?
1946 - Protection of certain whales, whale sanctuaries in the southern ocean, requirement of catch reports and statistical biological records.
What is the International Whaling Moratorium?
1982 from the IWC - pause in commercial whaling - only effects commercial whaling, not cultural Inuit.
What is the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition?
A non-governmental organisation, comprised of well-known environmental campaign groups such as; Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, and the WWF. Focuses on;
• Negotiating a legally binding polar code which covers all vessels operating in the Southern Ocean.
• Establishing marine reserves around the Ross Sea
• Managing Southern Ocean fishing sustainably
• Regulating tourism
• Strengthening the whale sanctuary
• Mitigating the impacts of climate change
• Monitoring implementation of the Madrid Protocol.
What is the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research?
A non-governmental organisation which regulates the research in Antarctica. As well as playing a primary scientific role, it also operates in an advisory capacity to he ATCM and other organisations like the UNFCCC and the IPCC.
What are periphery areas?
These areas are poorer and may experience exploitation, economic leakage and out migration.
E.g. LIC's in Africa, Central Asia and Latin America