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Flashcards in Global Gov Specifics Deck (22):

How have governments supported globalisation?

Increasing local exports e.g. UK Trade and Investment encourage businesses to export oversees
Less developed countries like Pakistan offer inland dry ports which reduce transport costs, goods are shipped to sea ports like Karachi


What was the 1986-1994 Uruguay Round?

Formed by the WTO - reduced barriers for trading manufactured goods


What was the 2001 Doha Development Agenda?

From the WTO - reforms trade in agricultural produce between advanced and developing countries - tariffs could be reduced by 30%.
Reduction could be in subsidies paid to produce farm products and for HIC’s there would be reduced consumption price and fairer prices for NEC farmers.


What is an import license?

License used by a national government authorising the importations of goods from a specific source


What are import quotas?

A set physical limit on the quantity of goods that can be imported into the country


What is the TPP?

The Trans-Pacific Partnership which is a free trade agreement between 12 countries; Japan, USA, Australia,, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam.
Has been criticised because negotiations lack transparency.
Sets rules on subjects including investment, patents and copyright, financial regulation, labour and environmental standards.


What is the TTIP?

The transatlantic trade and investment partnership, which is a bilateral agreement to reduce regulatory barriers to trade for big businesses including; food and safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations but has been criticised for its covert nature.


What is the ‘Group of 77 and China’?

Established in 1964 which aimed to; represent the interest of the world’s poorest countries, help development and reduce poverty, disease and improve human rights.


What is the Mercosur trading bloc for Latin America?

Formed in 1991 and comprises of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela which is a traditional customs union and operates very similar to the EU and allows free movement of labour between member states. Main market is EU and North America


What is the United Nations Development Programme?

Aims to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, it operates in over 170 countries and the main work has been to lead the drive in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (which was 8 anti-poverty goals which were set in September 2005 and was aimed to be met by 2015). Now in the process of defining Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to strengthen post-2015 frameworks for: development, disaster risk reduction, climate change and global sustainable development.


What is the World Summit on Sustainable Development?

The Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, was important for setting out Agenda 21 to make long term strategies for sustainable development. Ten years later the WSSD was made to focus on direct action towards challenges, including; improving lives, conserving natural resources whilst keeping on top of the growing demands for food, shelter, sanitation, energy, health and economic security.


What is Agenda 21?

At the Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, 1992, Agenda 21 was a global blueprint for sustainable development. Agenda 21 encourages more sustainable individual lifestyles by using strategies. Uses a top down approach to encourage a bottom up response as the ideas filter down from the UN, to national government, to local government in order to influence actions of individuals. An example of this is local authorities in the UK having a Local Agenda 21 where recycling options are part of waste collection.


What is the United Nations Environment Programme?

The body responsible for supporting a coherent structure of international environmental governance. They have been leading global environmental authority since 1972, and now work as part of the UN system-wide preparations for the post-2015 UN Development Agenda - the Sustainable Development Goals.


What are the world summits on climate change?

The atmosphere counts as a global common, the United Nations, Framework Convention on Climate Change is responsible for overseeing negotiations on reducing GHG emissions. At the UN Paris Climate Summit in December 2015, a legislation was made to come into force in 2020, to hold global temperature rises to a maximum of 1.5°C.


What are the key features of the UN Paris Climate Summit?

All countries voluntarily cut emissions, long-term aim to reduce emissions to zero in the second half of the twenty-first century, HIC’s and wealthy NIC’s pledge $100 billion each year to help developing countries adapt to climate change, increasing pledges every five years if they fail to keep warming below 2°C and addressing losses that vulnerable countries face from climate change such as rising sea levels and storm intensity.


Why is sealing a threat to Antarctica?

1800’s - fur seal wiped out in South Georgia and the South Shetland Islands. Within 3 years <300,000 seals had been killed and the population was virtually eradicated


Why is fishing and whaling a problem?

Fishing and whaling - 19th century, targets were blue and white whales, whaling stations established in South Georgia and the South Shetlands. Establishment of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in 1946 lead to the end of most whaling in 1985 because of low stocks. In 1994 the IWC established the Southern Ocean whale sanctuary, 50 million kilometres² around Antarctica.


What is the Madrid Protocol of 1991?

Antarctica is a natural reserve for peace and science, environmental principle for all activities, prohibits mining, all activities must be assessed for environmental impact, rules and liability for environmental damage, and waste must be returned to country of origin


What is the International Whaling Commission?

1946 - Protection of certain whales, whale sanctuaries in the southern ocean, requirement of catch reports and statistical biological records.


What is the International Whaling Moratorium?

1982 from the IWC - pause in commercial whaling - only effects commercial whaling, not cultural Inuit.


What is the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition?

A non-governmental organisation, comprised of well-known environmental campaign groups such as; Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, and the WWF. Focuses on;
• Negotiating a legally binding polar code which covers all vessels operating in the Southern Ocean.
• Establishing marine reserves around the Ross Sea
• Managing Southern Ocean fishing sustainably
• Regulating tourism
• Strengthening the whale sanctuary
• Mitigating the impacts of climate change
• Monitoring implementation of the Madrid Protocol.


What is the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research?

A non-governmental organisation which regulates the research in Antarctica. As well as playing a primary scientific role, it also operates in an advisory capacity to he ATCM and other organisations like the UNFCCC and the IPCC.