7 Solutions/Solubility, Diffusion, Tension, & Fluid Physics Flashcards Preview

AS - N927 Chem/Physics > 7 Solutions/Solubility, Diffusion, Tension, & Fluid Physics > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7 Solutions/Solubility, Diffusion, Tension, & Fluid Physics Deck (24)
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1

Solute

Solid, liquid, or gas dissolved in solvent
Solute particles must be surrounded by solvent particles

2

Solvent

Substance into which a solute is dissolved
Dissolving agent
Body fluid solvent = water

3

Solution

Homogenous mixture of two or more components
Particles include atoms, ions, or molecules
Solute dissolved in solvent
Ex: Sugar and water (both polar)

4

Suspension

Solution where the solute CANNOT be dissolved in the solvent
Ex: Oil (non-polar) and water

5

Colloid Solution

Particles exist in solution somewhere between a TRUE solution and a TRUE suspension
Size of particles - between those found in solutions and suspensions
Mixed in way that remain evenly distributed w/out settling out

6

Solubility

Polar dissolves in polar
↑ temperature ↑ solubility
Heat (↑ temp) & energy (stirring) breaks intermolecular forces
H2O dissolves polar substances better than ethanol d/t H2O more polar (dipole-dipole & hydrogen bonding)
Solids - dissolution in solvent directly proportional to temp (100g dextrose in 100ml H2O will slightly displace volume d/t dextrose particles take up space b/w H2O molecules)
↑ temp ↑ solubility (solid in liquid)
Gases - solubility dependent on solvent nature and temp
↑ temp ↓ solubility (gas in liquid)
Endothermic & exothermic reactions

7

Solution Strength CALCULATION

Solute grams per 100mL solvent = % solution
Percent = per 100
0.9% NaCl = 0.9g NaCl / 100mL
Molar solution - solute moles per 1L solvent
NaCl = 23 + 35AMU = 58g/mol
0.9g NaCl / 100mL = 9g / 1L
(9g/L) / (58g/mol) = 0.155 moles

8

Henry's Law

Amount gas dissolved in liquid directly proportional to the pressure applied to the gas as it overlies the liquid
Temperature also affects gas solubility (inversely proportional)
40mmHg pressure applied therefore 40mmHg pressure from gas molecules w/in the solution

9

Diffusion

Process by which substance spreads through the space available to it by random molecular motion
Molecules more from area of high to low concentration
Pressure gradient ∆P
P1 - P2 > 0

10

Graham's Law

Describes gas movement from one compartment to another through a porous membrane (diffusion) or small opening such as an orifice (effusion)
Diffusion α 1/√Molecular Weight
Directly proportional to solubility
Larger, more cumbersome molecules = less diffusion

11

Graham's Law CALCULATION

Diffusion coefficient = Gas solubility / √Molecular weight
= Gas 1 Diffusion Rate / Gas 2 Diffusion Rate
= (Gas 1 Solubility / Gas 2 Solubility) x (√Gas 2 MW /√Gas 1 MW)
Given solubility - Gas A 20x more soluble than Gas B
Relative rate of diffusion

12

Fick's Law

Describes gas volume that diffuses across membrane per minute
Diffusion rate = (Area x Diffusion coefficient x ∆P) / Membrane thickness
r/t alveolar capillary membrane
↑ surface area ↑ diffusion
↑ thickness ↓ diffusion

13

Turbulent Flow

Density more important
Influences probability that interactions b/w fluid molecules will occur
↑ density = ↑ molecules per unit area therefore ↑ change molecular collisions ↑ drag (resistance) ↓ flow

14

Gas Diffusion/Effusion

Diffusion - porous membrane; gradual gas mixing d/t motion of component particles
Effusion - escape of gaseous molecules via small opening (orifice) into evacuated space
α 1/√MW
α 1/√Density
Less dense gas ↑ diffusion/effusion

15

Bunsen Solubility Coefficient α

Gas volume in liquid unit at 0°C and 760mmHg
Expressed as numerical value for particular gas in given liquid
= mL gas per 1 mL H2O

16

Ostwald Solubility Coefficient λ

Defined as ratio of gas volume absorbed to the solvent volume at body temp 37°C and ambient pressure
Used to express the blood/gas and tissue/gas ratio
"Blood-gas partition coefficient"

17

Law of Laplace

Defines the pressure gradient across the wall of sphere (alveoli) or cylinder (blood vessels and airway) which are r/t surface tension and radius

18

Laplace CALCULATIONS

Tension defined as internal force generated by structure
Sphere
T = (P x r) / 2
Cylinder
T = P x r
Pressure inversely proportional to the radius
P α 1 / r
Small vs. large alveoli pressure gradient w/out surfactant

19

Surfactant

Amphipathic detergent
Produced by Type II alveolar cells
Equalizes pressures w/in small and large alveoli
Surfactant present in alveoli to ↓ surface tension d/t ALI
Increased efficacy in smaller radius alveoli (well-organized structure/orientation)

20

Surface Tension

Created at the interface (ALI) b/w liquid and gas where liquid molecules are pulled together by intermolecular (cohesive) forces
Air non-polar and H2O polar
Pel 2/3 surface tension and 1/3 elastic intrinsic factors (type, number, health of fibers)
Know relationship to surfactant

21

Micelle

Aggregate of surfactant molecules dispersed in liquid forming a colloidal suspension
Hydrophilic (polar) head in contact w/ solvent and hydrophobic (non-polar) tail w/in micelle center

22

Poiseuille's Law

Laminar flow
F = (π ⋅ r^4 ⋅ ∆P) / (8 ⋅ η ⋅ L)
F = ∆P / R
Directly proportional to ∆P and r^4
Inversely proportional to viscosity and length
Resistance opposite (inverse to r^4 and direct to viscosity and length)
R α 1 / r^4
↓ viscosity ↑ flow
Application: 18G vs. 24G (diameter), increased hydrostatic pressure (∆P), polycythemia/anemia (viscosity) impact on flow

23

Reynolds Number

Predicts when flow through tube changes from laminar to turbulent
(Inertial Forces)/(Cohesive Forces)
< 2,000 Laminar Flow
2,000-4,000 Transitional
> 4,000 Turbulent Flow
Re = (velocity ⋅ diameter ⋅ density)/viscosity
Does not consider or predict resistance

24

Laminar → Turbulent Flow

Reynolds number > 4,000
High flow of velocity
Tube narrows or kink/bend/angle
Roughness on tube wall (mucus, clot, etc.)
Fluid flows through an orifice
Resistance to flow increases when turbulent
Density determines turbulent flow (not viscosity)