Flashcards in 8. Connective Tissues Deck (39):
What are the functions of the connective tissue blood?
Liquid tissue that's for gas transport and immune defence functions.
What are the functions of the connective tissues cartilage and bone?
What are six functions of connective tissues?
Provide substance and form to the body and organs. Provide a medium for diffusion of nutrients and wastes. Attach muscle to bone and bone to bone. Provide a cushion between tissues and organs. Defend against infection. Aid in injury repair.
What are the two components of connective tissue?
Cells and extra cellular matrix, which consists of ground substance and fibres (collagen, reticular or elastic).
Name three ways in which connective tissues difference from each other?
The type of cells they contain, the abundance and density of their cells and the constitution of their extra cellular matrix (ground substance composition and fibre type, abundance and arrangement).
What are the two embryonic connective tissues?
Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue.
What are the two tissues classified as proper/ regular connective tissue?
Loose/ areolar or dense (irregular or regular).
What are six specialised connective tissues?
Adipose tissues, blood, cartilage, bone, lymphatic tissue and haemopoietic tissue.
How do mesenchymal cells look with H and E dye?
Tapered cells due to cytoplasmic processes. Abundant, viscous ground substance looks like lots of white.
What do mucous connective tissues look like under the microscope?
Capillaries bearing red bleed cells, specialised ground substance takes up a lot of intercellular space. The mesenchymal cells are spindle-shaped.
What are proteoglycans?
Monomers that have a core protein to which around 100 glycosaminoglycan units are joined.
What is the function of proteoglycans?
They have a high density of negative charge so attract water and form a hydrated gel.
What proportion of the whole body protein content does collagen take up?
1/4 to 1/3, it's the commonest protein in our body.
What is gelatin?
How many type of collagen are there?
At least 28.
What is the most widely distributed type of collagen?
Type I, 90% of all collagen. Fibrils aggregate into fibres and fibre bundles.
Give a detail of type II collagen and two places it is present in.
Their fibrils don't form fibres. It's present in hyaline and elastic cartilage.
Where can type I collagen be found?
In tendons, capsules of organs and skin dermis.
What is reticulin?
Type III collagen. It's fibrils form fibres around muscle and nerve cells and within lymphatic tissue and organs.
Where can type IV collagen be found?
Unique form in basal lamina of basement membrane.
What is the structure of type I collagen?
An amino acid chain where every third amino acid of the a-chain is glycine.
There are three a-chains, forming a triple helix.
Each collagen molecule is 300nm long and 1.5nm wide.
Each fibril is composed of staggered collagen molecules, periodic banding appears ever 68nm.
What are elastic fibres mare of?
Elastin and fibrillin. The elastin enfolds and is surrounded by fibrillin.
What is Marfan's syndrome?
An autosomal dominant disorder where the expression of the fibrillin gene is abnormal so the elastic tissue is abnormal.
What are they symptoms of Marfan's syndrome?
Sufferers are abnormally tall, have arachnodactyly (long fingers), have frequent joint dislocation and are at risk of catastrophic aortic ruptures.
Where can loose connective tissue be found?
In the lamina propria between the krypton of Lieberkühn and the colon.
What type of connective tissue is the dermis?
Dense irregular connective tissue.
What is dense irregular connective tissue?
Bundles of collagen densely packed but irregularly arranged so they can be orientated in multiple directions.
Where can dense regular connective tissue be found?
In the tendon. Collagen bundles lie in parallel in line with the tensile forced exerted by the muscle.
What lies in between collagen bundles and muscle fibre filaments?
What is the purpose of fibroblasts in connective tissues?
To synthesis and secrete ground substance and fibres that lie within the ground substance. They're important for wound healing and are cells primarily responsible for formation of scar tissues.
What are macrophages?
Phagocytise cells and antigen presenting cells that help with degradation of foreign organisms and cell debris.
What are mast cells?
Cells that contain lots of granules. Granules contains heparin, histamine and substances that attract eosinophils and neutrophils.
What's the difference between white and brown adipose tissue in terms of lipid droplets?
White adipose tissues have the multiple lipid droplets fuse to form a single large droplet which displaces the other cells contents to the cell periphery but brown adipose tissue have the multiple lipid droplets stay separate.
What is the appearance of white adipose tissue cells with H and E staining?
They look empty as all the cell contents are at the periphery.
What is the appearance of brown adipose tissue with H and E staining?
many lipid droplets with a central nucleus.
What is the appearance of neutrophils under a light microscope?
They have five lobes to their nucleus.
What is the appearance of red blood cells under a light microscope?
What is the appearance of resting lymphocytes under a light microscope?
Most of the cytoplasm is filled by the nucleus.