9-24 Vertebral Column/Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9-24 Vertebral Column/Spinal Cord Deck (32):
0

What are the 6 parts of the Vertebrae

2)Describe the order of connection starting from Spinous process

1. Body
2. Spinous process
3. Transverse process Laminae
4. Articular facets/processes
5. Lamina
6. Pedicles

B: SP--(connects to)-->Lamina--->Articular facets-->Pedicles-->BODY which has 2 transverse laminae sticking out

1

Foramen Transversarium

2) What does bifid mean?

exclusive opening within Transverse processes tht transmit vertebral arteries/veins = HUGE Landmark for locating Cervical VErtebrae

2) bifid = "split"

2

1) How many Cervical Vertebrae are there?
2) Describe C1 (____), C2(_____)


3) Which cervical vertebrae has a LONGER spinous process and what is its special name?

1) 7 Cervical Vertebrae

2) C1(ATLAS)=NO body and NO spinous process

C2(axis)= HAS DENS/ODONTOID with bifid spinous process

3) C7=Long spinous Process WITH NO BIFID= Vertebra prominen

3

A: How many Lumbar Vertebrae are there?

B: List 3 main traits of Lumbar Vertebrae

A: 5

B:
ºLong, slender transverse processes
ºaccessory processes present
ºArticular facets face medially/laterally

4

A: How many Thoracic Vertebrae are there?
B: List the 3 main traits of TV

A: 12

B:
*Costal facets that articulate ribs
*Articular facets face ANT and POST
* Long Spinous processes project inferiorly

5

A: How many Sacral vertebrae are there?
B: 2 characteristics of SV

A: 5 SV
B: Fused to form sacrum / Possess surface that articulate coxal bones

6

Where are Intervertebral disc found and what are they made of ?

Found C2-L5 and comprised of annulus fibrosus & nucleus pulposus

7

Coccygeal vertebrae

4 INFERIOR vertebrae varying in size BIGGEST to smallest = our "tail"

8

A: What are the 2 PRImary curvatures?
B: 2 Secondary Curvatures?

C: 3 Abnormal Curvatures?

A: 1º = Thoracic / Sacral -->concave anteriorly
B: 2º = Cervical / Lumbar---> concave POSTeriorly "2ºCL-POST"

C: Kyphosis / Lordosis / Scoliosis

9

Describe the 3 Abnormal Curvatures:
1) Kyphosis
2) Lordosis
3) Scoliosis

1) Kyphosis = exaggerated 1º curve (hunch back)
2) Lordosis = exaggerated 2º curve (sway back)

3) Scoliosis = lateral deviation of vertebral columns

10

Describe the 5 Main Ligaments for Vertebrae

1. Supraspinous=continuous w/ligamentum nuchae superiorly
2. Interspinous=connects 2 spinous processes
3. Ligamentum flavum=connects 2 Lamina

4. POST longitudinal Ligaments=covers superior surface of vertebral body

5. Anterior longitudinal = covers INFerior surface of vertebral body

11

The ___Vertebrae are the only group that has nerves located both ABOVE and BELOW each vertebrae

CERVICAL VERTEBRAE have nerves above AND below
vs.
other vertebrae tht only have nerves BELOW vertebrae

12

What supplies blood to the Vertebrae?

small osseus branches from spinal arteries

13

Describe Spinal Cord Anatomy [4]

1. Caudal continuation of the brain
2. Descends vertebral canal
3. Enlargements in cervical & lumbar regions
4. Tapers off into a [conus medullaris] at L1-L2 in Adults

14

The Meninges have 3 Layers (___--->____--->____)
*Describe the iNNer most layer

[[ pia-->subArachnoid/Arachnoid--->DURA ]]

*most iNNER= pia = close to spinal cord / dentate ligament lateral extensions between nerve roots / continues inferiorly as the [filum terminal internum ]

15

The Meninges have 3 Layers (___--->____--->____)
*Describe the Middle layers

[[ pia-->subArachnoid/Arachnoid--->DURA ]]

*subArachnoid/Arachnoid = thin & delicate layers that house subarachoid space which contains CSF

16

Filum Terminal Internum

delicate fiber of pia that sits downward the conus medullaris & descends to coccyx, anchoring and giving longitudinal support to spinal cord

17

1) Where does the C1 spinal nerve exit?
2) Where does C8 spinal nerve exit

3) Where is the Dural sac terminated?

1) C1 nerve exits ABOVE THE C1 VERTEBRAE

2) C8 exits below C7 vertebrae ...c/w all Cervical vertebrae have nerves above & below

3) Dural Sac terminated immediately below S2

18

The Meninges have 3 Layers (___--->____--->____)
*Describe Dura Mater [2]

[[ pia-->subArachnoid/Arachnoid--->DURA ]]

DURA=
1)TOUGH, OUTER protector housing subdural & epidural space(contains internal vertebral venous plexus).

2) Continues inferiorly as filum terminale externum AKA coccygeal ligament

19

1) Name how the 31 pairs of spinal nerves are grouped [5]
2) Where do MOST of them exit?
3)Explain why the Cauda Equina/(___ __) is so important

4) Which ganglia are Spinal nerves connected to ?

1) 8 Cervical / 12 Thoracic / 5 Lumbar / 5 Sacral/ 1 coccygeal
2) MOST exit thru intervertebral foramen [ALL EXCEPT C1 nerve]

3) Vertebral canal CE allows lumbar & sacral regions to get nerve innervation since spinal cord STOPS at L1-L2!
CE = "horse tail"

4) Sympathetic Chain Ganglia

20

Dermatome

Specific region of spinal nerve innervation by the dorsal & ventral rami combined <-----caused by segmental body development

21

What arteries supply blood to the Spinal Cord?

2) What happens as these arteries go down further on the cord?

superior vertebral branched arteries ( ---> anterior & posterior spinal arteries)

2) ant and post spinal arteries receive blood from [radicular arteries] derived from other spinal artery branches in the proximity

22

Venous drainage is ____& _____ freely thru _____ channels

Venous drainage is EXTENSIVE & COMMUNICATES freely thru VALVELESS channels

23

A: External venous plexus location

B: Internal venous plexus location
C: Basivertebral Veins location

A: EVP=lies EXTERNAL to verterbrae

B: ivp = lies WITHIN vertebral canal IN epidural space

C: BV= lie within BODIES of VERTEBRAE

24

What is a key note to remember regarding Dermatome locations?

Even with good nerve innervation maps, THERE IS CONSIDERABLE OVERLAP BETWEEN ANY 2 ADJACENT DERMATOMES

25

Where does the Dorsal Root Ganglia sit?

bulging area tht sits OUTSIDE spinal column, literally Proximal to spinal column

26

SubOccipital Nerve (__ ____ ___) is located within the ____and is ____ ONLY!

2)What are the 4 muscles this nerve innervates?

SuBOccipital Nerve (Dorsal Ramus C1) is located within the SubOccipital triangle (innervating all 3 triangle muscles + 1 )and is MOTOR only!

2) Rectus capitis posterior MAJOR and minor /
Obliquus capitis SUPERIOR and inferior

27

What dermatome region innervates the pinky and ring finger?

C8

28

1) Dermatome region for Thumb
2) Dermatome region for genitals
3) Dermatome for OUTER SIDE FOOT
4)Dermatome for 1st four toes

5) Dermatome for Base of Neck?
6) Dermatome for Clavicles
7) Dermatome for Nipples

8) Where does the Cervical dermatome area come to an end?

1) Thumb= C6
2) genitals = S2 & S3
3) OUTER SIDE FOOT = S1
4) 1st four toes= L4

5) Neck BASE = C4

6) Clavicle = C5
7) Nipples = T4

8) Cervical Dermatome (C5) ends right where ur tattoo is

29

Where is the Vertebral Artery located?

Above posterior arch of C1 deep within the SubOccipital triangle

31

1) What supplies blood to the muscles of the SubOccipital triangle?

2) Which muscles are actually in this SubOccipital triangle?

1) regular ole OCCIPITAL ARTERY gives blood to SubOccipital triangle

2)Rectus capitis posterior MAjor/ Obliquus capitis SUP/Obliquus capitis inferior

32

*Levatores Costarum

**Where are they located?

*What nerve innervates this?

*1 of the 3 muscle groups acting on ribs(respiration)
= elevating ribs.
[along with both groups of Serratus POST ]

**Located on vertebrae transverse processes

*Innervated by Spinal DORSAL Rami